Types of Fractures


A fracture is a medical terminology that refers to a broken bone.Apart from the physical force, fractures may be as a result ofcertain diseases such as osteoporosis and cancer that weakens thebone. There are numerous types of fractures.

Closed also known as simple fractures occur when the broken bone hasnot pierced the skin. Treatment involves holding in place the twocorners of the broken bone. This is followed by bandaging thefracture with a wet plaster. After the plaster has dried up, it issometimes split into two halves which are then re-bandaged to giveroom for any swelling that may happen (American Academy of OrthopedicSurgeons, 2012). Open or compound fractures involve broken bonesthat have already pierced the skin such that a wound has alreadyformed on the outer part of the breakage site. Consequently, externalas well as internal infections are common in the case of open orcompound fractures. The treatment for this type of fracture involvescleaning the wounds in a dressing room, followed by aligning the twoedges of the broken bone after which the affected portion is bandagedand a plaster applied. Greenstick fractures involve a tiny crack inthe bone that happens mostly in children because of their relativelysoft bones. Treatment involves repositioning and bandaging theaffected part. Hairline fracture occurs mainly on the lower leg orin the foot following stress sustained by the bone as a result ofactivities such as running or jogging. Treatment involves thepatients desisting from engaging in activities that strain his/herbone for about one month. This allows the affected part to healnaturally. Depending on the type of the bone, a doctor may recommendeither a cast or splint to restrain the affected part (Victoria StateGovernment, 2014.

Complicated fractures occur when the structures surrounding thebroken bone are severely injured. These structures include the veins,arteries, and nerves. External fixation which involves screws or pinsbeing connected to a metal bar on the outer part of the leg to holdthe broken bone into position before surgery is done to address theinjured structures (Victoria State Government, 2014).The brokenbone is then lined up through surgery, after which either a cast orsplint is applied. Commuted fracture occurs when the affected boneis shattered into three or more smaller pieces. The small pieces areheld together by special screws. Also, the fragmented bones may bejoined by placing rods through the marrow space in the center of thebone. Compression fracture involves two bones being forced againsteach other. Treatment involves surgery to stabilize the bone. Also,in the case of the spinal fractures surgery helps to restore the lostheight of the broken vertebra (American Academy of OrthopedicSurgeons, 2012).

In conclusions, the types of fractures include simple, compound,commuted, compression, greenstick, hairline, and complicated ones.Treatment for each of these fractures depends on the extent of theinjury and the affected bone.



American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. (2012). “Fractures.”Accessed on October 1, 2016.http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00139

Victoria State Government. (2014). “Bone Fractures.” Accessed onOctober 1, 2016.https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/bone-fractures