TwoCountry Study (Turkey and England)
TwoCountry Study (Turkey and England)
Englandis among the countries situated in the United Kingdom. To the North,it mainly shares it largest borders with Scotland and to the Westwith Wales. Several water bodies surround England for instance, tothe Northwestern side, there is the Irish Sea, and to the South West,the Celtic Sea dominates. It is the continental sea that separatesEngland from the mainland Europe this is mainly located on theEastern side while on the Southern side it is separated by theEnglish Channel (Grice, 2013). As a country, England covers a widearea of the south as well as the central portion of the Great BritainIsland it is located in Northern Atlantic. It also includes otherminor islands that include the Scilly Isles as well as the WrightIsle.
Modernhuman beings inhabited the region that is now called England – thiswas throughout the Upper Paleolithic epoch. However, it derives itstag (name) from Angles, which is among the clans from German thatinhabited between the fifth and the sixth centuries. Throughout thetenth century, since the Discovery Period that started in thefifteenth century, it has had a substantial effect on the largerglobe in a cultural and legal way.
Theterrain in England mostly comprises of plains and small hillsspecifically at the Southern and Eastern areas. However, there arealso uplands that are found in the Northern part and the South West.London is England’s capital. It is the biggest metropolis region inthe European Union together with the United Kingdom. England has atotal population of about 53 million this is the amount thatconstitutes about 84% of the entire population in the United Kingdom.The largest concentration is found in London, some of the parts inthe Midlands, the North East, the Southeast, Yorkshire and the NorthWest areas. These are mainly the areas that have developed in theindustrial regions during the 19thcentury (Adler & Pouwels, 2014).
After1535, the United Kingdom included Wales stopped being a sovereignstate in 1707. Currently, England being part of the United Kingdom isa constitutional monarchy with a dominant political system.Additionally, it has a political system. Currently, the head ofEngland is Queen Elizabeth II who has been in this position since1952. She acts as a representative of the Commonwealth of Nationsthat has 54 members and is the Supreme Governor of the EnglandChurch.
However,since 1707, there has not been a government in England. This isbecause of the Acts of Union that effect the obligations andstipulations that are used in treaties of Unions. These mergedScotland and England to bring about form the Great Britain. This isdespite the fact that the other economies in the UK have establisheddecentralized administrations. In England, the lower house of theBritish parliament is the commons’ house that is located in thePalace of Westminster. In essence, it is directly ruled by theassembly. It contains 532 MPs for the constituencies within Englandthat total to about 650. Because the UK is part of the EU, in Englandthe polls are held county-wide to elect those who will serve asEuropean Parliament’s members.
Accordingto Burns (2015), after the devolution, each of the countries in theUnited Kingdom has their devolved assemblies or parliament to addressthe local issues. A major debate has been ongoing to determine theright way to counterbalance this aspect in England.
Amajor problem is being faced in the entire world as a result of theneed to find a solution for England. In particular, this has beencontributed by its democratic nature. Apparently, so many peoplecurrently in England have got a lot of powers. It means that thespecter of democracy is the current element that is haunting England.The main reason for this is the anger that has exploded against thepolitical class with a lot of disgust being reflected their way.
Thereis a well-established middle class in the United Kingdom, whichincludes England. However, studies have revealed that there are sevenlevels of social structure in England. They include the wealthy orthe elites, the middle class who are made up of those who have aprosperous salary and those who mainly comprise of the professionalsand the managers. The next level involves that of the technicalexperts (Grice, 2013). It is the class of the new and the affluentworkers. At the lower categories of the structure, there is the agingtraditional working class or the precariat class that is mainlycharacterized by the people who earn very low levels of income aswell as the new group of service workers. The middle sectors of thesocial structure are fractured into factions that can bedistinguished and separated by the economic, generational, culturaland social characteristics that were thought to be notable (Davidson,2013).
Englandhas the largest economy among the four countries that are present inthe United Kingdom this is mainly because it is a highlyindustrialized country. It is one of the leading producers oftextiles and other chemical products. The other important industrialproducts from England are aircraft, locomotives, and automobiles.However, a significant portion of the income for the country comesfrom London, which is the largest financial center. An important rolehas been taken up by the financial services towards the increase ofthe English economy since the 1990s. Some businesses and services areconcentrated within the city. These include the insurance companies,banks, and commodity and future exchanges. The British currency isthe sterling pound and is produced by the Central Bank of the UnitedKingdom or the Bank of England, which is situated in London (Grice,2013).
However,one of the biggest problems lies in the fact that although theservice sector is the largest in England, there is a decline in themanufacturing and the primary industries. The only service area thatseems to be growing is the construction company. It has been fuelledby the economic growth that is primarily offered by the growingaspects of the administration and the financial sector (Davidson,2013). In this regard, it will be vital for the government to workout ways through which most of the manufacturing companies can beestablished and revived to enhance the economic growth in thecountry, increase the amount of revenue and provide more jobopportunities for the citizens of the country.
Turkeyis a country which lies within Western Asia and Southeast Europe. Itis a democratic, unitary, and secular nation with diverse culturalsystems. The Republic of Turkey was founded in the year 1923 afterthe defeat of the Ottoman Empire remnants by Mustafa Kemal. The statebecame a part of the United Nations in 1945. Over the years, Turkeyhas adopted significant political, social, economic, and legalreforms. However, the country has often been debilitated by militarycoups, instability, and terrorist violence. Despite this, Turkey`sdiplomatic initiatives and economic growth make it a crucial regionalpower.
Turkeyis a parliamentary republic. The President of Turkey serves as thehead of the state. However, he or she plays a ceremonial role. Theexecutive authority is held by the Prime Minister and the country`sCouncil of Ministers (Central Intelligence Agency, n.d.). ThePresidential post is elective through direct voting, and it is heldfor five years. Parliament also elects Turkey`s prime minister, andhe or she is in most cases the leader of the party with most seats.The legislative mandate is held by a unicameral parliament, which isknown as the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Central IntelligenceAgency, n.d.). The Judiciary of Turkey is independent of both thelegislature and the executive.
Turkeyembraces universal suffrage. Both male and female citizens of thecountry who have attained 18 years and above are allowed to vote.Both men and women can also stand to be elected. Turkey has a highlycentralized form of a governmental system. However, since the countryis a member of the Council of Europe, the European Charter of LocalSelf-Government obliges it to have local governments (Brennan &Herzog, 2013). The constitution of Turkey is based on the principlesof secularism, Kemalism, and modernization. It provides a platform onwhich the country’s legal framework lies. As a multiparty state,Turkey’s political parties derive from the principles of Islamism,Kemalism, and nationalism (Aknur, 2012). It is also important to notethat Turkish politics are influenced by neo-liberalism, socialism,communism, and Pan-Turkism.
Turkeyis a democratic state or a liberal democracy. The country is ruled bya representative government which bases its governance on theconstitution. The leaders of Turkey are chosen through free and fairelections. The elections are conducted on a regular basis. Multipartyis allowed in Turkey (Aknur, 2012). This has opened the way for theemergence of many political leaders. Political pressure groups playan important role in the country. They help to ensure that there isgood governance. Peaceful demonstrations and protests are allowed inTurkey (Kuru & Stepan, 2012).Demonstrators take advantage of thisopportunity to get to the streets and pile pressure on thegovernment. The country is also a secular nation. It does not have astate religion.
Despitebeing considered one of the perfect democracies in the Muslim world,Turkey does not practice real democracy. It is front-run by anauthoritarian leader who does not care about the principles ofdemocracy (Kuru & Stepan, 2012). After the recent failed coupattempt, President Tayyip Erdoğan jailed several journalists, bannedmany academicians from traveling, and removed thousands of Turkey`scivil servants from the country`s payroll. The Turkish governmentoften silences the opposition and critics. The private businesses ofthose who do not agree with the government are in most casesdestroyed. The freedom of expression is also under pressure (Brennan& Herzog, 2013). Turkey as well holds a controversial humanrights records, which have always been condemned by the internationalcommunity. With this being said turkey’s democracy has moved intoan authoritarian state.
Turkeyhas about 75 million people. Nearly 75% of these people live incities and towns. Turkey serves as the world`s largest home ofrefugees (Brennan & Herzog, 2013). These include more than 2.2million refugees of Syrian origin. The majority of the people inTurkey belong to the Turkish ethnicity. These people form about 70%of the population of the country (Brennan & Herzog, 2013). Othernotable ethnic groups in Turkey include the Kurdish, Armenians, Jews,Greeks, Bosniaks, Persians, Assyrians, Azeris, Georgians, Albanians,Circassians, and Lazs.
Theofficial language of Turkey is Turkish. About 85% of the people inthe country speak the language as their mother tongue (CentralIntelligence Agency, n.d.). Other local languages commonly spoken inTurkey include Kurdish, Zaza, and Arabic. Unlike most other countriesin the region where it is located, Turkey is a secular country. Thereis no formal religion acknowledged by the nation. Despite this, Islamremains to be the dominant religion in Turkey. About 99.8% of thepeople in the country are Muslims (Kuru & Stepan, 2012). Otherreligions practiced in the country include Christianity, Judaism, andAtheism.
Theeducation system of Turkey is organized in a way that a studentspends four years in the primary school curriculum, four years inmiddle education, and four years in high school. The country alsoprovides tertiary education through universities, colleges, and otherlearning institutions (Brennan & Herzog, 2013). Turkey has acentralized health care system. There are more than 30,000 medicalinstitutions in the country (Brennan & Herzog, 2013). This makesit possible for many people to access various healthcare serviceseasily.
Turkeyhas a diverse culture, which blends the elements of Anatolian,Ottoman, Oğuz Turkic, and Western traditions. The country strives tocreate a balance between its historical and religious values, andmodern and Western ways of life (Kuru & Stepan, 2012). In termsof art, Turkey is known for painting, music, dance, and literature.These forms of art vary from one region to another. The Turkisharchitecture derives from the element of Armenian, Byzantine,Persian, and Arab architecture (Brennan & Herzog, 2013). Thecountry has hundreds of radio stations, television channels,newspapers, and magazines which played a key role in preventing thecoup against the government July 2016.
Turkeyis among the founders of the UN (United Nations), the OECD(Organization for Economic Co-operation & Development), and theOrganization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). It is also one of thepioneers of the ECO (Economic Cooperation Organization), the OSCE(Organization for Security & Co-operation), the Group of Twenty(G-20), and the Developing-8 (D-8) (Akyazi, 2015). The country isalso a member of the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD).
Centralto the Turkish foreign policy is the improvement of relations withvarious European nations. This explains why the country has appliedto become a member of the European Union (Central IntelligenceAgency, n.d.). Turkey has also held a good relationship with theUnited States for many years. This alliance was necessitated by thethreat of the former Soviet Union. It is also important to note thatTurkey usually sends its military forces to international missions(Akyazi, 2015). In the past, the forces have participated inpeacekeeping missions in Yugoslavia and Somalia.
Fromthe analysis above, it is clear that Turkey is a parliamentaryrepublic which practices what can be considered to be a partialdemocracy. A majority of the members of the population of the countrylive in urban areas, and they are Muslims. Turkey maintains a goodrelationship with European and Asian nations. It also relates well tothe United States. Turkey is usually threatened by political unrestand military coups. However, the country`s growing economy makes it asignificant force which cannot be ignored.
Analysisof England and Turkey
Variouscountries run in different ways that assist them to meet theirobjectives and to provide their citizens with the services that theyrequire. However, based on the historical background and the recentactivities that led to various changes, most of the countries aredifferent in many areas. It is with these that they conduct theiroperations in unique ways. The level of democracy in England is muchhigher than in Turkey. This is one of the factors that havecontributed to a high standard of representation of women in theparliament when compared to men. On the other hand, they also have afew similarities that enable the comparison between two or mostcountries. For instance, based on their government structures,England and Turkey function in different ways. The bodies andindividuals that provide the governance mechanisms are different.Although they have different structures and functionalities, theystill have certain similarities that enable them to develop andprovide services in a similar manner (Dogke, 2012).
Fromthe details gathered, it is apparent that there are several differentelements between England and Turkey. These include the primarylanguage that is spoken by the people in the two countries. They alsohave varied currencies, which are the sterling pound and the Lira.The government structures in both countries differ a lot. In fact,they influence most of the operations in the countries withparticular emphasis on how the decisions are made and how thedifferent problems are solved within the countries. Although thereare several differences, there are also certain similarities thatinclude the location whereby England is located in Europe whileTurkey can be found in both Asia and Europe. Although they both havea large size of the legislature, England has more members thanTurkey.
Someof these differences have been impacted by the type of governmentthat is found in each of the countries. For instance, theconstitutional monarchy that is found in Europe helps the country tomaintain a particular format in their decision making. With this, itis possible to make some improvements in several areas. It is mainlybecause of this political structure that decisions can be done fromwhere they are left thus leading to numerous enhancements in aparticular area of concern and enabling the improvement of the livingconditions s of the citizens despite the fact that there is a hugepopulation. This is contrary to the case of Turkey where there isparliamentary democracy kind of government structure. It keepsshifting from one time to another and is not influenced by apermanent source of decisions. In this case, there is the apparenttendency for variations in the operations thus leading to a lack ofreliability in the manner that various activities are conducted.
Theyare also influenced by the abilities of the two governments to workon the problems. In particular, England has been more stable becausethe constitutional monarchy conducts operations in a successive wayfrom that of the predecessors. In this case, there is a flow in thenature of improvement of the various services provided. It is unlikein Turkey where there are inconsistencies that develop based on thenature of government that is in place at a particular time (Dogke,2012).
Severalcountries experience the same kinds of problems that are found inEngland and Turkey. For example, Greece faces the same challenges asTurkey while Switzerland encounters similar problems as those inEngland However, they have been able to serve as role models whendealing with these issues in the sense that Greece has managed tomaintain its military stability hence, the ability to beeconomically capable than Turkey. Similarly, the latter hasmaintained its position under the EU to work and the same rules andregulations hence, a better chance for improvements.
ForEngland, it can be recommended that the level of democracy beconsidered. It is important to cut down the amount of powers that aregiven to some people this will bring about a great balance in thelevel with which most of the operations in the country are conducted.It also means that the powers that are given to the parliament arereduced. In this way, it will be possible to make most of thedecisions in a serious manner to the extent that it will bebeneficial to most of the citizens in the country. Another importantfactor is the need to improve on most of the service delivery areasthat include the manufacturing companies in the effort to increasethe amount of revenue that can be collected from the industries(Dogke, 2012).
Onthe other hand, it is advisable that Turkey makes some adjustment toits political structure and makes improvements in the service andmanufacturing industries to enable it better the economy of thecountry. This is mainly because, based on the political structure andthe manner with which operations are conducted in the country,England seems to be ahead of Turkey. Therefore, there is a need togive more attention to the powers that are in the country and findbetter ways to improve the economic status of the country in theeffort to make life better for the citizens.
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