is an infectious disease caused by a bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease affects the lungs but can affect other parts of the body. Infections arising from tuberculosis mostly do not depict symptoms (Horsburgh, 2014). However, the latent stage of the disease could turn out infectious, if undetected and untreated. Individuals affected could succumb to the disease.

Symptoms of

Individuals infected with tuberculosis could exhibit different signs and symptoms


remains to be a dangerous respiratory disease causing significant health concern among the concerned stakeholders (Zumla, Raviglione, Hafner, &amp von Reyn, 2013). The high mortality rates that arise due to tuberculosis has seen considerable efforts being directed toward the treatment of patients affected by the disease.

“Together we can stop tuberculosis”

Consideration has been made to the fact that the disease is communicable exposing individuals not affected are at risk of getting affected. Treatment of the condition has been affected by the fact that the disease has become resistant to the available regimen. Because of the same, it has become essential for individuals to identify the disease early enough for introduction of treatment.

Signs and Symptoms

affects different parts of the body, but the severity of the disease is experienced at the lungs. Pulmonary tuberculosis is localized at the lungs while extrapulmonary TB sequesters to other parts of the body (Connell, Berry, Cooke, &amp Kon, 2011).


  • A persistent cough lasting more than three weeks and characterized by phlegm that could be bloody.

  • Weight loss

  • Fatigue

  • Loss of appetite

  • Night sweats

  • Chest pain

Spread of

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a small, aerobic bacillus. Individuals affected by the disease spread it when they cough, speak, sneeze, spit or sing. Any of the identified actions results in the spread of the infectious droplets in quantities of 0.5 to 5.0 µm (Horsburgh, 2014). Each of the droplets released by the individuals can transmit the disease because it is infectious. The non-infected individuals can inhale the bacteria resulting in the development of the condition. Individuals who have had a prolonged and frequent exposure to people infected with tuberculosis are at risk of developing the infection. However, transmission from an infected to another who is unaffected depends on various factors. Factors such as the number of infectious droplets, duration of exposure, the level of ventilation of the room, the strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis spread and one’s immunity determine the transmission of the disease (Zumla et al., 2013).


Theinfectious nature of the disease negates the need to come up withappropriate ways of dealing with the condition. There are differentresources available at the community level that can help in themanagement of the disease. Places of social gatherings should beadequately ventilated to prevent transmission. Further, the communityhas health care centers some of which are instrumental in thediagnosis and treatment of those infected. Finally, there areawareness programs that have been introduced that help educates thecommunity on how to protect themselves.

Howto Protect Myself

is a highly infectious disease. Individual protection entails oneavoiding places that are crowded. It would be instrumental in helpingreduce the probability of getting infected. Further, attendance ofpublic forums that are educative on tuberculosis will help inunderstanding how to deal with the disease. Personal protection wouldalso entail educating others on how to look out for the symptoms andactions to take in dealing with the same. The infectious nature oftuberculosis negates the need to ensure that one protects themselvesand those around them.


Connell,D. W., Berry, M., Cooke, G., &amp Kon, O. M. (2011). Update ontuberculosis: TB in the early 21st century. EuropeanRespiratory Review : An Official Journal of the EuropeanRespiratory Society,20(120),71–84.

Horsburgh,C. R. (2014). . EuropeanRespiratory Review : An Official Journal of the EuropeanRespiratory Society,23(131),36–9.

Zumla,A., Raviglione, M., Hafner, R., &amp von Reyn, C. F. (2013).. TheNew England Journal of Medicine,368(8),745–55.



Descriptionof tuberculosis

traces back its long history in the ancient Egypt following itsevidence found in the long well kept up vertebrates of Egyptian deadbodies. Before Robert Koch discovered the bacteria in the year 1882,the epidemic had greatly affected Europe and North Amerca in an 18thand 19th century.

Thediscovery by Koch helped in coming up with vaccines, which broughtthe spreading rate to a halt in the world. Later, people felt thatthe disease was almost defeated. It culminated to confidence even bythe United Nations who declared the disease would be a history by theyear 2025. Despite all the strive by the scientists and UnitedNations, the disease became more viral in the mid-80s, and the casesof the got higher than ever in the United States ofAmerica and the entire world.

Inthe pursuit to up the efforts in dealing with , WorldHealth Organization declared it a world emergency that requiredimmediate attention. Hence, going down the history as the firstdisease to be announced world emergency.

Fortunateenough, with the invention of more sophisticated drugs almost allinstances and emergencies brought up by TB became curable. Thusdecreasing the disease in the United States at the commencement ofthe year 1993. Nonetheless, the disease remains a matter of greatconcern in the whole world. According to James McIntosh article,if no proper measures are put in place to cure people suffering fromTB two-thirds are prone to succumb to the disease.

Now,what is ? Esther Hockeyis very explicit in answering this question on her web page. Insimple words, TB is a communicable disease that affects someone’slungs. According to the study as posted on his website, TB is thesecond main killer in the whole world due to its single virulentcause in the whole world. On the same website he adds that, in 2012,1.3 million individuals in the whole world perished due to thisdisease, as if that is not more than 8.6 million were left healthydeteriorated due to . Indeed, the numbers were worrying[ CITATION Est16 l 1033 ].

Accordingto medics, there two types of in the world with one theybelieved to have affected many people. Latent and Active are thetypes of the TB. Inactive form is spread all over the world, and morethan a third of the population are affected by this kind of TB.Unlike Active TB that causes symptoms and easy to be noticed,inactive TB is symptomless but grievous if not well remedied(McIntosh, 2015).

Accordingto medics’ reports, the odds of Latent TB becoming active are 10%and fully manifests itself among the people whose immune is notstrong. The most affected people are malnourished and those livingwith HIV or those who smoke (McIntosh,2015).

Althoughpeople prone to be affected by this disease are those living indeveloping countries, scientific studies have it that affects anyone in the world with the majority being young adults. In2012, McIntosh states that 80% of the cases reported were from 22countries in the whole world. With the majority being the third worldcountries (McIntosh,2015).

Whatis the cause of ? James McIntosh, in his work as posted,he unequivocally expounds on the cause of TB and how it spreads fromone person to another. In his article, the Mycobacteriumtuberculosis&nbspbacteriumis the cause of in the world, and he adds that it isthrough the air it spreads. It happens when someone suffering from TBcoughs, sneezes, spits, laughs or talks close to someone who isbacteria free. The person breathes in the bacteria which gets home inthe person’s lungs leading to TB within a span. CommunicableDisease Chania underpins his school of thought where the same meansof transitions as outlined under module 1 (OpenLearning Works, 2016).

is transmissible, but he also offers an olive branch by adding thatthe disease is not easily caught. However, he adds that someone whostays with a person with has high chances to be infectedby than someone who meets a TB stranger.

Throughtreatment, someone may no longer be contagious. On the other hand,with the emergence of Multidrug – resistant TB (MDR – TB). It isbecoming trickier to heal the disease. The bacteria causing develops resistance due to the recent misuse ofantibiotics by individuals. World Health Organization gave a sternwarning to all medical officers to desist from administeringantibiotics to patients anyhow due to the effect aftermath.

Specificdrugs are used to treat MDR -TB. According to report as posted byJamesMcIntosh on his website around 450, 000 people in the world wereaffected by MDR-TB in the year 2012.

AlthoughLatent TB is said to have no symptoms unless otherwise, Active Tbshows some symptoms and the following are some of them: “chillsbecoming weightless coughing sometimes with mucus or blood feverand loss of appetite (McIntosh,2015).

Thegravies pestilence usually targets the lungs and destroys them.Still, it is found in other body parts. When getsoutside the lungs to other body parts, the bacteria becomes moreprecarious especially when medication is not taken on time. Some ofthe complications include: in bones can affect thespinal leading to savior pain and obliteration of joints. Also, TBaffecting the brain can lead to meningitis, in the liver and kidneyit can lead to pitiable purification purpose, in the heart, can lead to complication in the heart, a situationcalled “cardiac tamponade” resulting to death (McIntosh,2015).

Healthdeterminants and how they contribute to spread of

The“CSDH” expounds on the healthy determinates as “conditions thatgenerate or reinforce social stratification in society.” Thestratification later brings forth dispersal of the determinants butin imbalanced fashion. The materials of health are into fourcategories including “material living condition and psychosocialcircumstances together with behavioral and biological risk factors”(JamesR. Hargreaves, 2011).Determinantsof TB epidemiology according to the journal NCBI are variations inthe worldwide common financial system, increasing populace, andlastly uncontrollable sprawl to urban areas seeking employment (JamesR. Hargreaves, 2011).

Theabove conditions are the main cause of disparities in distributionsof TB determinants,including lack of enough food leading to malnutrition. Secondly, poorhousing leading to over population and lack of enough money to accesshospitals. Third, unfamiliar cultural beliefs among people. Lastly,some hospitals age far located making it difficult for people toaccess them (James R. Hargreaves, 2011).

EpidemiologicTriangle of

Accordingto Penn State Eberly College of Science, Epidemiologic Trianglecomprises of an external agent, a host, and an enabling atmosphere,in which host and agent interact thus leading to malady to take placein the host body. A vector facilitates the process. Transmits thebacteria by passing them on from host to another while notnecessarily causing the infection by itself.

Inthe Epidemiological Triangle, the agent is the TBorganisms, and the prevalence of the host may arise due to poornutrition, concurrent diseases, and low body immunity. Theenvironment factors may include, crowding, poor ventilation andsub-standard sanitation. All are present (Penn State Eberly Collegeof Science, 2016).

Rolesof health nurse

Theroles of nurses in the community are indispensable and variety,however, I will cover the few given. To begin with Case Findings itmay be passive or active case finding passive finding is voluntaryreporting while active finding aims at establishing the unknowndiseases in the community by the nurses. Secondly, reporting this iscommunication of information to other ranks within the healthservices. Thirdly, Data collection: it is the process of recordingthe findings or reports. It is interviewing, listening, recording,measuring, surveying or observation and record review. Fourth, dataanalysis it is the interpretation of collected raw information. Thedata is either qualitatively or qualitatively. Lastly, follow up itis ensuring that the proposed recommendations adhere. All thesefunctions are vital for community nurses in a bid to attain theirobjectives in any locality (Nigusie, 2013).

Nationalorganization that addresses

Oneof the agencies in U.S. is The Centers for Disease Control andPrevention (CDC). It meets its obligation by setting up internationalstandard TB testing kits, facilitating the supply of TB drugs, itdeploys its emergency team in areas with TB outbreak it supports TBcommunication services in the world, and lastly, it builds morecapacity in health units to accommodate more TB patients. CDC hasbeen resourceful in this battle not only in the US but the wholeworld [ CITATION CDC16 l 1033 ].


Thebattle between medics and TB started long ago and up until today itis still on. Different sophisticated drugs have been discovered tohelp to eradicate this problem, but the resurgence of MDR-TB is now anightmare to many. Different bodies together with World HealthOrganization should come together and come up with a comprehensiveoverhaul to reduce this problem and salvage thousands of people whosuccumb to it.


(James R. Hargreaves, D. B. (April 2011). The Social Determinants of : From Evidence to Action. Am J Public Health, 101(4): 654–662.

CDC. (2016, September 12). CDC’s Role in Preventing Extensively Drug Resistance TB. Retrieved from Center for Disease Control and Prevention:

Hockey, E. (2016). Transcript of Chain of Infection: . Retrieved from Chain of Infection:

James R. Hargreaves, Dellia Boccia, Carlton A. Evans, Michelle Adoto, Mark Petticrew, John D. H. Potter. (April 2011). The Social Determinants of : From Evidence to Action. Am J Public Health, 101(4): 654–662.

McIntosh, J. (2015, November 17). Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments. Retrieved from Medical News Story:

Mesfin Nigusie, H. A. (2013, January). Lecture Notes for Nursing Students. Public Health Nursing, pp. 70 – 90.

Nigusie, H. A. (2013, January). Lecture Notes for Nursing Students. Public Health Nursing, pp. 70 – 90.

Open Learning Works. (2016, September 27 ). Basic Concepts in the Transmission of Communicable Diseases. Retrieved from Communicable Diseases Module: 1:

PennState Eberly College of Science. (2016). Epidemiologic Triad. Retrieved from Epidemiological Research Methods: