Autonomousvehicles have been described as a solution to the rising issues ofurban congestion. One of the leading causes of congestion in thecities is the increased number of vehicles and human error. Since thehuman manned vehicles are often singly used, the autonomous vehiclespromise a change from the above trend whereby they will be able tocover the needs of more than one individual. Shared autonomousvehicles hold the promise of increased space in cities with the mainadvantage coming from the ability of all the people to share thevehicles provide to them. Autonomous vehicles are holding the promiseof better and safe traveling environment given that most of thevehicles use direct electric energy (Alexander 2016).

Parkingis one of the primary space consumers in urban cities. The citieshave to allocate significant portions of land for the parking of allthe vehicles used in the towns. Parking in the assigned spaces doesnot necessarily mean that space will be adequate. The allocated landfor parking may be smaller if there are out of town travelersfrequenting the city (Lyndon 2016). In this case, they will have tocome up with better interventions that will be more capable ofmeeting the overall needs. Most of the times, the travelers have toleave their vehicles out of town and use the public means oftransport to reach their destination. This trend can change with theautonomous vehicles.

Thereduction of parking space promises the increment in the number ofgreen initiatives in the cities. Parking lots are not necessarilysupportive of the green living. Most of the parking lots are locatedin the region next to residential areas. People living in these partsoften find themselves having to contend with the unsightly group ofvehicles resulting in the less admirable image (Alexander 2016).Secondly, the sustainability of neighborhood parking spaces has beenchallenged due to the masses of gasses released from the vehiclesreleased. These gasses often affect the people living in theneighborhoods.

Autonomousvehicles also hold the promise of increased rural travel. Often, thetrips to the countryside surrounding cities are challenging giventhat the logistics and fuel charges could be detrimental for theindividual traveler. This factor limits the ability of the towndwellers to contribute to an otherwise thriving tourism business. Forthe city dwellers to add to the rural tourism and travel, it isimperative that there is a reduction in the costs of travel.Naturally, public means of transport contribute to cost reduction. Apublic network of autonomous vehicles promises an increment in thenumber of tourism activities in the r rural regions surrounding majorcities.

Autonomousvehicles are likely to reduce instances of human error. In mostcases, the highway authorities have to put up signs that are meant toguide the drivers when they are making their choices. In this case,the highway authorities find themselves incurring significantly inthe erection of signs and marking of the roads. The incurrence ofthese costs reduces the capability of the local government to rollout efficient and rapid repairs (CAMERON 2014). Since the autonomousvehicles do not need any controls and can follow their chartedcourse, the approach to the road markings will be significantlychanged with the abolishment of the signage being a reality if theentire transport network is fully automated. There is also thepossibility of increasing the throughput per single lane.

Autonomousvehicles promise the transformation of the transport system. Asopposed to the current individually operated vehicles, theself-driving automobiles promise the development of a system thatwill be devoid of human error. Self-driving vehicles will oftenoperate based on the region or location in which they are located.Through the constant communication with the various satellites, thevehicles will be capable of reducing the speed to configure itsoperations with the real time date on the city locations (CAMERON2014). In this case, self-driving vehicles are capable of followingall the rules applicable to specific areas. In this case,self-driving vehicles will reduce the need of traffic policearresting the offenders or controlling traffic flow. With theautonomous vehicles, there is a possibility of an accident-freetravel and a traffic violation free transport system. This approachhas to be applied in the development of the sustainable future forall the people.

Theintroduction of the self-driving vehicles will also provide pertinentinformation on the management of the transport system. The data willbe transmitted from the vehicles to the set repository. Datatransmission will ensure that the system is configured according tothe real time. The mode of transport also holds the promise ofincreased management of the transportation sources. In most cases,the data will be used in the calculation of the transport costsincurred in the region. Consequently, the mode of transportationwill be based on the pay as you go platform. In this case, theadditional costs that automobile owners incur will be eliminated topave the way for the most sustainable mode of transport.

Self-drivingvehicles also hold the promise of an increase in the traffic safety.Autonomous vehicles have the possibility of a reduced accident ratecompared to the most conventional vehicles (CAMERON 2014). Accidentsare highly attributed to human error with some instances allowing theapportionment of blame to the vehicle status. The accident rate ofthe autonomous vehicles has been reduced significantly. Consequently,the same aspect will be introduced in the transport network with themajority of the people who would have been involved in accidentssaving their lives after the usage of autonomous vehicles.

Automatedvehicles have a low accident propensity. However, the research intothe ability of the vehicles to be included in the market has faultedthe acclaimed safety standards. This means that automated vehiclesare not necessarily capable of meeting the set standards. Theaccident rate of the vehicles has been compared to that of themiddle-aged drivers with a certain level of experience.

Self-drivingcars are increasingly becoming more adept in that they have beenlauded as beneficial for all the people. The proficient technologyhas reduced the number of errors of design and operationalization. Asthe technology becomes affordable, the promise of the driverlessfuture is near in this case the driverless vehicles are more likelyto be rolled out in the transport system at this point as opposed toany other aspect in the future. Driverless cars will be more feasiblein that it will ensure that all the people have attained the neededtransport without the encumbrances of the small safety record ofhuman beings.

Anotherrevolutionary aspect of the self-driving vehicles is that they havethe possibility of communicating with each other. In most cases, lackof understanding between the drivers can result in accidents(Alexander 2016). Most of the accidents witnessed on the roads can beattributed to an individual driver failing to understand what theother driver intends. Miscommunication can be detrimental to thedevelopment of the more active transport network with the informationinterchange failing to meet the actual needs of the travelers.

Developmentof the more accurate communication system between the vehicles cancontribute to better transport standards. When the automated vehiclesare fully introduced in the market, there is a high likelihood of thetransport systems becoming more effective and safer. Based on thehigh-speed internet connectivity, the autonomous vehicles will becapable of pinging each other on the locations of the traffic lightsand distances between each vehicle from the other. The accuracy ofthe information sharing system will increase the propensity of thedriverless vehicles becoming more secure and efficient in meeting thesafety targets in all regions.

Forthe interests of the drivers who would prefer the thrill of driving acar, the same innovations found in the automated vehicles will alsocontribute to the increment of safety in the driven cars. The vehicleto vehicle communication holds the promise of increased informationsharing between drivers(Lyndon 2016). In this case, the vehicles canbe communication about the presence of a particular condition such asan accident or a traffic jam ahead which can be used in thealteration of the approaches to the transport network. In this case,the self-driving vehicles can also act as traffic controllers for thedriven vehicles (Lyndon 2016). Self-driven vehicle technology couldbe added to the existing vehicle technology such that they will beactive in the accident reduction. The technology can be applied inhybrids of self-driven and driver-assisted vehicles.

Theself-driven vehicles also have some detrimental effects on the usersas well as the transport industry in general. Users can assume a morerelaxed perspective in the transport. However, since the autonomousvehicles are computers susceptible to hacks and malfunctions, anyfailure of the system increases the risk of the vehicle beinginvolved in an accident. The vehicles will most likely crash killingthe passengers. In instances like this, the automated vehicles failin meeting the glorified safety standards that have been the maindrivers of the popularization of the alternative.

Automatedvehicles will affect the transport network in a dangerous mannergiven that the majority of the transport operators will be forced tolay off their workforce for the automated transport. In as much asthe move will be necessary due to the changes, the impacts of thisdecision will be felt by all the people. For the people to be fullyemployed, other industries will have to develop at an unprecedentedlyhigh rate. This maybe infeasible future since the growth rate for anyindustry is set (Lyndon 2016). The above move can be reduced if thevehicles have the human aspect whereby a driver can still man thevehicle at some point if the vehicle is not capable of operating inthe anticipated manner. This provision will not only cover issues ofjob retention but also fill up the loopholes in the innovation.


Alexander&nbspH.&quotAutonomous Car Benefits | Driverless Car MarketWatch.&quot&nbspDriverlessCar Market Watch | Gearing Up to Save Lives, Reduce Costs, ResourceConsumption,WordPress, 30&nbspApr.&nbsp2016, 6&nbspOct.&nbsp2016.

LyndonB. &quot10 Benefits of Self-Driving Cars || New Car Prices, Used Cars for Sale, Auto Prices, Car Pictures andCar Reviews,Autobytel Inc,&nbsp2016, 6&nbspOct.&nbsp2016.

CAMERON&nbspS.&quotU.S. Agencies Take Significant Step Toward WirelesslyConnecting Vehicles To One Another.&quot&nbspSingularityHUB,Singularity Education Group, 5&nbspFeb.&nbsp2014, 6&nbspOct.&nbsp2016.


Pastpresent and future

Thereshe crawled, tiny but with grace

Likea small insect among a herd of elephants,

Shecrawled among her siblings.

Thefear of size limitation did not deter her.

Thereshe crawled.

Thereshe stood, wobbling and holding onto anything.

Bereavedat a young age, she stood hoping that the ground will support her.

Hopingto have a better fate than that of her mother, she cautiously stood.

Likea cat approaching a curious object, she approached the world that hadfailed her.

Thereshe stood.

Thereshe walked, holding onto any object for support.

Findingsolace in the inanimate and shunning any human being.

Learningthat the world was hers to brace at a tender age,

Hopingthe day’s end will find her alive but suffering through,

Thereshe walked.

Thereshe ran, fast like a flash

Seekingthe ways of making cash from the street,

Oftenrunning from troubles and misfortunes

Prayingthat life will find her choice in tune and forgive her for hermisgivings

Thereshe ran.

Nowshe connives,

Nowshe has perfected the art of learning human beings

Nowshe is the snake conniving and scheming.

Nowshe does not have to use violence of prey on the unwary.

Nowshe makes deal with men for money

Sometimesfor drugs,

Sometimesfor both in exchange for a moment of fleeting pleasure,

Eachencounter ending in polite goodbyes and self-disgust and loathe,

Nowshe is crushed and hopeless.

Thestreets have taught her hope is the most dangerous thing.

Shelives for today and marvels at the day break.

Sheleads a bitter sweet life devoid of any touch of humanity

Eventhough she is just across you and me


Idon’t know about religion

Idon’t know much about science

Iknow my present self and anticipate a better tomorrow

Ifear for my legacy each day

Irevert to science and religion seeking possibility

Transcendencebugs me

Iwas a religious person

Alwaysready to pray and worship like a dog

Iwas a hopeful man

Seekingcomfort in the existence of a supernatural who knows all

Iwas adept at running away from issues that I could understand.

However,transcendence bugs me.

Iencountered science

Ittalked of origins of species

Mostof the information contained in it was less confusing

Nonetheless,I was still lost

Howcome a bean stalk is a distant cousin?

Idon’t know much about science.

Ibelieve in myself, at least I am sure of whom I can become.

Religionand science have failed me

Mostof the times they contradict each other,

Subjectivityis the commonality between the two

Iseek transcendence

Iwant to live long after I am dead

Ialso don’t want to die

Hopefullyscience will help me live forever,

MaybeI am too optimistic

MaybeI am just another fool,

Maybeits jus human to seek transcendence

Iwill live on through my works

Iwill live on through my children

Iwill vicariously live on through my readings

Iwill be capable of travelling into the past

Iwill accompany the science fiction writer into the future,

Iwill probably die soon or later

However,my name will live on.

StillI seek transcendence everyday


Biomedicaldecisions tend to touch on the legal, ethical and clinicalperspectives. There is rarely a simple choice dealing with anybiomedical case. Consequently, the selected option will be an amalgamof the three views. However, there are significant differencesbetween the perspectives. The differences between the views stem fromthe basis of the view. From a legal standpoint, there is a limitedlevel of freedom given that most of the decisions have to be based onthe letter and spirit of the law. For ethical aspects, the basis isindividual and subjective with each person free to base his or herbiomedical decision on the dominant culture, opinion and subjectiveevaluation of pros and cons since the definition of what is right ornot varies. Clinical perspectives on biomedical decision makingdepend on the facts and data collected from the scientific testing.Therefore, it is the surest foundation of biomedical decision making.

Ethicalperspective is the most complicated and variable view when makingbiomedical decisions. Ethics are based on the societal or dominantdefinition of what is right or wrong. Cultures have differentperspectives on what is morally good or bad. What is permissible inone culture may be unwarranted in another. Consequently, workingfrom the ethical perspective does not guarantee the effectiveness ofa decision since given the differences in the definition of morality,the decision may be ineffective less optimal when the culturalcontext is changed. For example, a societal could be againstgenetically modified foods while the research may have proven thatthere are no side effects of their consumption. In this case, thedecision maker has to consider the ethical orientation of the societyand make the most acceptable decision even though it may havedetrimental effects on the society. Therefore, ethical decisionmaking depends on the individual decisions as well as theconsideration of the widely felt perceptions about the course ofaction.

Ethicaldecision making has to consider the virtue ethics and dilemma ethics.Virtue ethics touch on the essential values of the medicalpractitioner while dilemma ethics touches on what is essentiallydeemed as the right course of action. When one perceives the virtueethics, the role of the practitioner and his or her original culturecome into play. For instance, the virtue ethics could push thepractitioner into pushing for the adoption of the geneticallymodified foods since the morality pushes him or her into believing inwhat he or she knows is right. Dilemma ethics consider the impact ofthe decision on the people and whether it is important to follow thewishes of an under-informed majority.

Legalperspectives depend on both the letter and spirit of the law. The lawoften states what is acceptable and what is not while laying thepunishments for the wrong doers. In this case, the law can be direct.However, there are some instances where there are legal ambiguitiesand differential inferences. In other cases, the laws could beoutdated and ineffective but remain unnamed. Making the biomedicaldecision based on the outdated laws can be detrimental. For instance,some countries accommodate cultural diversity in their constitution.Where the document is ambiguously drafted, such a provision cancreate dilemmas for the medical decision maker. Even when scientificfacts are supporting a particular course of action, the ambiguity ofthe law can block the best course of action. When the power to decideis left to the regions with backward cultural practices, the factualbasis can be relegated to the background.

Legalperspective has the most far-reaching impacts on the decision maker.Ignoring the law can result in repercussions. In instances when thelaw is silent, international conventions and any other precedent canbe used in making the decision. Typical decisions touching onbiomedical fields have been enshrined in the legal framework.Therefore, before making any biomedical decision, the legal basis ofthe course of action has to be conclusively established.

Finally,clinical perspective provides a factually based foundation for thepolicy makers. For instance, research into the effects of geneticallymodified foods and their impacts on any animals that ingest themought to be based on the evidence collected from the tests.Clinically based decisions often depend on the information that hasbeen availed while creating a credible backing. In this case, theclinical perspective of the decision making is more reliable sinceall the data can be backed by evidence. Scientific testing is oftenwidespread and accepted with little variations. Scientific methods ofcollecting information can create the same results if the sameprocess is replicated. Therefore, any decision maker relying onscientifically collected clinical data can provide ultimatedecisions. However, relying on the single approach to decision makingdoes not necessarily validate the decision. An ideal biomedicaldecision is compliant with the laws, ethically, and scientificallyvalid. However, it is impossible to attain the perfect decision hencea compromise on one or more of the perspectives has to be made.