Summary for Articles

for Articles

Inthe article “RethinkingSpecial Education,”by Wang et al., it is argued that there has been real progress in theprovision of quality and affordable education to all students,especially those with special needs. However, the article insiststhat there have been challenges such as segregation and inconsistentplacement and classification of the students. Besides, the articleargues that the approach that has led to withdrawing the needystudents from the regular classes has not been effective in improvingthe performances of the needy scholars. Also, the authors maintainthat overlapping programs and services are barriers in realizingbetter performance from the students. According to the authors, thegovernment is supposed to implement structural changes as well asgiving waivers to the district schools that are willing to integrateexceptional programs so as to improve the productivity of thestudents (Wang et al., 1986). My opinion is that the state shouldconsider the learning environment of the needy students to realizebetter results from scholars.

Thearticle “TheInclusion Movement: A Goal for Restructuring Special Education”by Susan Bray Stainback, states that educational inclusion involvesallowing all the children, irrespective of whether they have specialneeds or not, to study together. According to Stainback, theinclusion is vital because it contributes towards personal growth ofthe students as well as their success (Stainback, 2000). The authorstates that inclusion is not a new concept in the education sector,but rather there has been a continuous integration. The authormaintains that inclusion is not only meant for the students withspecial needs, but it should incorporate students from poorbackgrounds as well as those from different races (Stainback, 2000).The article insists that all people regardless of the tribe must befamiliar with how to perform and interact with individuals in theworld for them to be accommodated in the society and workplaces. Theauthor argues that inclusion can help students in developing apositive attitude towards scholars with special needs. The articlemaintains that effective techniques such as Circle of Friends arenecessary to realize the integration of students. Furthermore,according to the article, the way that educators categorize theirstudents is crucial because it impacts on the performances ofstudents. For example, if a pupil is an individual with a learningdisability, the student will not believe his or herself in achievingbetter results in school. My opinion is that students are supposed tostudy together in the classroom so that they feel they are the sameand should not be segregated.

Thearticle “Capableof Achievement and Worth of Respect: Education for HandicappedStudents As If They Were Full-Fledged Human Beings,”by Lipsky &amp Gartner, states that the law has failed to eliminatethe barriers between the education that is received by children withdisabilities and those in regular classes. The article maintains thatthe main challenges that are facing the exceptional education sectoremerge from the way that people view a person with special needs aswell as the problems in the schools and pedagogy. The authors arguethat classification of the students with disability and theavailability of funds to separate the scholars are the major issuesin the schools (Lipsky &amp Gartner, 1987). Besides, the prejudiceamong the students has led to the emergence of a segregated educationsystem, thus treating children with disabilities as second classpupils. Scholars with handicapping conditions have been treated asindividuals who cannot behave appropriately and are incapable oflearning. The article insists that special education should not bethe separation of students, but rather students with disabilitiesshould be given a learning environment that is not restrictive totheir physical conditions. My opinion is that students withdisabilities should be treated the same as other students so as toboost their morale in learning.

Inthe article “History,Rhetoric, and Reality: Analysis of the Inclusion Debate,”by Kavale &amp Forness, examines the debate of the movement frommainstreaming of the general education among the students to theprovision of an environment that is less restrictive to the studentswith special needs. The article maintains that there should be a fullinclusion of all scholars in the regular classrooms rather thanhaving separate schools for students with special needs. The authorsargue that there has been a push for over 25 years towards realizingage- appropriate integration among the students with handicappingconditions. However, the push has interpreted to be the presence ofdifferent schools or classrooms for pupils with special needs.Furthermore, the authors insist that the truth about the generaleducation is that the positive attitudes towards scholars withparticular needs are yet to be implemented in the education sector(Kavale &amp Forness, 2000). Besides, political and ideologicalconsiderations are necessary to realize the goals of specialeducation. My opinion is that full inclusion of learners havingspecial needs is vital in the process of getting a rational solutionfor special education as well as providing quality education to allstudents.

Thearticle “TheDelusion of Full Inclusion,”by Kauffman et al., argues that full integration is a situationwhereby students are supposed to be learning in the regular classeswhich have the general curriculum. However, the separation ofstudents with the disability from those without is likeradicalization of the special education. The article also insiststhat the place where the special education is taught is not theproblem, but the disaster is the environment that is not friendly topupils with disabilities. Furthermore, the authors argue that theideology that special education will be realized only when thelocation is changed seems to be funny, and it is laughable. Fullinclusion is conflicting to logical thinking, varying from what isknown about the connection between learning and disability (Kauffmanet al., 2015). In this regard, full integration must include asupporting environment that is sustainable. The idea that specialeducation will only be realistic when the location has been changedis usually a delusion and can be wasteful and discriminatory. Theissues with the special education are more complicated with theuniversal education, especially when inclusion is interpreted to meanexcluding those with disabilities from the regular classes. Theauthors maintain that inclusion becomes more delusional as the rightto acquire quality education becomes more inclusive for all students.My opinion is that the schools and all the stakeholders should beconcerned more about improving the instructional environment of theneedy students instead of concentrating more on the places that thespecial education is being offered.

Thearticle “Instruction,Not Inclusion, Should Be the Central Issue in Special Education: AnAlternative View from the USA,”by Kauffman &amp Badar, states that lack of focus on theinstructions demeans the moral as well as the lawful human rights ofpupils with special needs in regard to the quality of education thatthe students get and at the same time it deprives the scholars theirsocial justices. The authors insist that instructional-relevantdifferences do not include nationality, gender orientation, amongother differences (Kauffman &amp Badar, 2013). The authors positthat failure to consider operative instructions instead of inclusionwill be a major barrier towards the achievement of needs for studentswith the disability in the education. Therefore, the authors arguethat effective instruction is vital, and it is a moral and civilright for students especially those with disabilities. Thus, theinclusion in the general education is secondary to actual instruction(Ford, 2013). My opinion is that both operative instruction andinclusion in the common education system are vital to individualswith disabilities.

Inthe article “TheReal Challenge of Inclusion,”by Ferguson, the main issue that is facing inclusion is the creationof an institution that will embrace a teaching mode that will bebeneficial to the needs of students especially those with specialneeds. The author states that the way the general education isorganized does not support the realization of goals of inclusion evenif special techniques are put in place (Ferguson, 2003). Therefore,institutions should create with ways to accommodate all the scopes ofhuman multiplicity. This will help in molding individuals in thecommunity who are good collaborators, confident, active in learning.The differences that various students have such as different interestare also challenges that hinder the realization of inclusion. Myopinion is that educators should come up with a curriculum that willensure that students are all round characters.

Questionsthat Come to Mind

  • Why are educators concerned more about the classification of students instead of full inclusion?

  • Why are teachers concerned more about the relocation of students with special needs rather than creating an environment that is less restrictive in the same schools that they attend?

  • Should the classification of students affect their morale?

  • What are the possible solutions to the challenges facing inclusion in schools?


Ferguson,L.D. (2003). TheReal Challenge of Inclusion: Confessions of a ‘Rabid Inclusionist’.

Ford,J. (2013). Educating Students with Learning Disabilities in InclusiveClassrooms. ElectronicJournal for Inclusive Education,Vol. 3 (1).

Kauffman,M.J. &amp Badar, J. (2013). Instruction, Not Inclusion, Should Bethe Central Issue in Special Education: An Alternative View from theUSA. Journalof International Special Needs Education,University of Virginia.

Kauffman,M.J., Ward, M.D. &amp Badar, J. (2015). TheDelusion of Full Inclusion.

Kavale,A.K. &amp Forness, R.S. (2000). History, Rhetoric, and Reality:Analysis of the Inclusion Debate. Remedialand Special Education,Vol 21 (5).

Lipsky,K.D. &amp Gartner, A. (1987). Capableof Achievement and Worthy of Respect: Education for HandicappedStudents As If They Were Full-Fledged Human Beings.

Stainback,B.S. (2000). The Inclusion Movement: A Goal for Restructuring SpecialEducation. EducationReform and Inclusion.

Wang,C.M., Reynolds, C.M. &amp Walberg, J.H. (1986). RethinkingSpecial Education. Association for Supervision and CurriculumDevelopment.