Appleis an American Multinational corporation that was found in 1977 bySteve Jobs, Ronald Wayne and Steve Wozniak. The giant technologycompany is headquartered in Cupertino in the State of California.Apple is specialized in the design and manufacture of computersoftware, electronics and online services. Some of its consumerelectronics include iPhone Smartphone, Mac personal computer, ipadtablet computer, Apple smart watch, Apple TV and ipod portable mediaplayer. The software developed by Apple includes macOS operatingsystem, iOS operating system, iTunes media player, iLife, Safari webbrowser and other highly quality software systems. Apple is thelargest technology company in term of yearly revenue and the largestpublicly traded by market capitalization in the world. In 2015, Applerecorded total revenue of US$233.715 billion and a net income ofUS$53.394 billion. It has 487 retail stores in 17 countries andemploys more than 115, 000 staffs across the world. The growth ofApple is attributed to the design and manufacture of high qualityproducts in addition to engaging extensive product promotion andother marketing techniques. Although, Apply has been in thetechnology industry for almost 40 years, it has remained one of thetop brands in the industry and among the top technology companies inthe industry. The corporation has over the years expanded its growthto various parts of the world by setting new firms in the targetmarkets and forming partnerships with other players in the industry.Apple has also capitalized on its organizational culture that makesit to clearly standout compared with other companies in the industry.
Visionand Mission statement of Apple
Applestrictly follows its vision and mission statement in order to boostits competitive advantage. The visions and the mission statementshave been changed on various instances depending on the new directionthat the company is intending to take. The vision and missionstatement guides the direction of the company in addition to helpingthe organization in making informed decision with regards to productdevelopment and company growth. All the three executives participatein the formation of a mission statement and other people, staffs alsocontributes their ideas. For instance, the current vision statementwas introduced by Tim Cook, the CEO of the corporation. The currentvision statement explains how Apple is focused on engaging in greatinnovations and development of simple technologies that will bring animpact to the users and the market. This vision statement continuesto explain how the Company avoids thousands of projects in order tofocus on a single project through effective collaboration and cross-pollinations to develop highly innovative groups in the organization(Apple Inc par 3). Unlike other common vision statements, the visionstatement of Apple Company is detailed and gives a clear direction ofthe company in addition to putting emphasize on the main factors thatmakes the company to standout, such as innovations and formation ofstrong work groups.
Themission statement, on the other hand, is less detailed but providesand puts more focus on the new products being developed in theorganization. The mission statement explains some of its productssuch as Macs, operating systems, iLife, and professional software.The mission statement further describes some of the additionalproducts it has developed and how the products have impacted thetechnology industry. The mission statement of Apple is very specificto qualify the name mission statement. Explaining the specificproducts manufactured by the organization in the mission statementmeans that the organization will have to develop a new missionstatement every time it develops new products. The vision and missionstatements of Apple are not effective enough because they are verydetailed to be grasped by its customers. Apple should summarize itsvision and mission statement to where it will only use its mainfactors that makes it unique in the industry. This way, its visionand mission statement will easily be understood by its customers andother stakeholders.
Microenvironmentand the Global National Environment
Technology is widely being embraced by manypeople across the world, which is why it is important for thetech-giants to have various strategies to deal with the variousexternal forces that may influence their operations.Macro-environments factors are factors that influence the decisionmaking process and affect the general performance of theorganization. Macro-environment factors of a business are political,economic, social conditions, and technology, legal and environmentalfactors. As one of the best trading companies in the United Stateswith cash in bank of over $34.7 billion, the company is expected toadhere to higher rate of taxations. The rate of taxation can greatlyimpact the performance of an organization by leading to increasedcost of production. Apple relies on the Asian countries such as Chinafor most of its operations such as assembling and accessibility ofraw materials. This means any political rift between the UnitedStates and the Asian countries can affect the performance of thecompany. China has been highly preferred because of the law cost oflabor. However, in the recent past, labor laws led to demand forstandardized wages which has caused the company to spend more on itscost of product. To reduce the cost of production, the company hasbeen forced to increase the price of its products and boost its valuechain. On the other hand, the growth of global economy and strongemerging economies has presented a good opportunity for Apple toexpand its market presences and open new markets for its products.
Thesocial factors likely to affect the performance of Apple include therival between China and some Western countries such as the UnitedStates which is spilling over to the customers. People are concernedabout purchasing products manufactured in China and the socialproblems associated with the manufacturing process of Apple. Thepositive social aspect is the emergence of middle income class inregions of Asia and Africa which is a great opportunity for Apple topromote its products. Although Apple has the best innovations, itscompetitors such as Google and Samsung have been able to developproducts that match its products with lesser time. This has posed agreat challenge for Apple in regards to improving its productdevelopment. In addition, the increase in cyber crime has posed achallenge because the company has to ensure maximum security on itsproducts. Apple faced a wide range of litigations from its taxevasions techniques to the weak labor policy (Hazelbaker par 3). Thishas forced the company to structure policies and laws to ensure thatthe organization adheres to the laws of the country to avoidexpensive litigations. The various issues affecting the environmentsuch a global warming and carbon emissions have made customers to beconscious and choose spending on companies that are environmentalconscious. To counter the challenge, Apple had to developmentrecycling strategies, reverse logistics, in addition to embracing theuse of green energy and helping communities in countering variousissues affecting their communities.
Industryanalysis based on Five Porter Model
Accordingto Porter, there are five forces that influence the market for aparticular product. They are supplier power, buyer power, threat ofsubstitution, threat of new entry and competitive rivalry.
Suppliershave moderate power considering the mutual benefits relationshipbetween the suppliers and the major companies in the industry. Thismeans the suppliers do not have direct influence on the prices ofproducts even though their number is relatively low. Although theremany technology companies as compared to the suppliers, the suppliersdo not have much power to influence the price because of the strongconnection they have with their customers. In addition, it isimportant to understand that the supply chain of a technology isdominated by different suppliers depending on the product. Forexample, some of the companies tied to Apple’s supply chain includeGlu Mobile.Inc, Analog Devices.Inc, Micron Technology Inc., andMurata Manufacturing Company. The many suppliers tied in a singletechnology company and other suppliers waiting to join the chain,reduces the ability of the suppliers to have ultimate power in theindustry.
Theextension of the technology industry, the large number of companiesin the industry combined with a wide range of products, gives thecustomers power. There are many companies in the industry a factorthat gives the customers a low switching cost. For example, acustomer buying a Smartphone has a wide choice product from differentcompanies such as Apple, Samsung and Motorola. Customers aresensitive to the cost of products in addition to the features andtheir ability to use the product. This means, Apple has to continueengaging in innovations to introduce products that suit thecustomers’ needs in the industry.
Thesubstitutes are not very much a threat to the existing companiesbecause there are no direct substitutes in the industry. The productsin the technology industry are almost similar and are differentiatedby various features. The progress in the technology industry makesthe different products to perform same functions and cannot have adirect substitute to replace their functions. Therefore, a companylike Apple only needs to ensure that its products are performing totheir best as compared to its rivals.
Threatof New Entry
Thetechnology industry is highly attractive because technology hasbecome a necessity in various operations of human beings. Theindustry attracts new entrants because of the many customers and theopportunity of making huge return on investment. The main challengethat faces new entrants is the stiff competition to already strongexisting brands in the industry and the high cost of introducing abrand in the market. Additionally, it requires organizations tohighly invest on project development in order to break the base ofthe giants in the market. Thus, new entrants do not pose a threat tothe established companies such as Apple. As a strongly establishedcompany, Apple does not face any threat from the new entrants becausethey have to work very hard to meet its level of performance andbrand equity in the industry.
Thetechnology industry is dominated by some tech-giants all aiming atwinning a large market share. Additionally, the market is constantlychanging because technology is usually fast replaced with newinnovations. There is a strong rivalry which makes companies tocontinue developing new products as well as engaging in extensiveadvertisement in order to improve brand equity. With the stiffcompetition in the industry, it is very important for Apple tomaintain its innovativeness and product promotion in order to winmore customers (Grundy and Tony pp 220).
TheAmerican multinational technology company engages in the developmentand manufacture of both hardware and software systems such asSmartphone, operating systems and televisions. The wide range ofproducts makes Apple to have different competitors depending on themarket for its products. Microsoft is the major competitor of Appleespecially in the market for computer operating systems. Microsoftstill remains one of the strongest brands in the market giving thecompany a competitive advantage over Apple. Apple capitalizes on manypatented innovations in addition to its right of giving licenses ofsome of its products. The major challenger of Apple in the Smartphonemarket is Samsung. Samsung develops high quality Smartphone,televisions and other electronics. Unlike Apple Company that takes aconsiderably long time to design its products, Samsung takes a veryshort time to introduce a new product in the market. Apple was thefirst company to introduce Smartphone in the industry before Samsungintroduced its first Smartphone and took over the industry. Theprimary competitive advantage of Samsung is to launch into an alreadyexisting market and flood it with new versions of the products likeit did on Smartphone market. Google competes with Apple on variousmarkets such as operating systems, and cloud storage. The androidoperating system which is designed by Google has enabled the companyto form partnership with many organizations that use android in theiroperations. Google’s main competitive advantage is its wide rangeof brands, extensive partnerships in addition to having a verypowerful organizational culture. Google also uses its effectivesearch engines in promoting its products.
Strong value chain is one of the factors thatgive Apple its competitive advantage. Apple has both inbound andoutbound logistics, and unlike its competitors, it has structured itschain so that suppliers compete against each other. Tim Cook, thecurrent CEO of Apple company has played a significant role in thedevelopment of the new value chain that has enabled the company tolower the cost incurred and reduce the time taken in the varioussteps of its value chain. Apple value chain framework assists theorganization in identifying the business activities. In the inboundlogistics, Apple works with hundreds of suppliers across the world.The company sources its raw materials from countries in Asia such asChina and Indonesia. This is advantageous because the high populationin a country like China and the availability of raw materials helpsthe company to lower its cost of production. The assembling is donein China, because of the availability of low cost labor, and theshort distance for moving the raw materials to the manufacturers(Gereffi et al pp 311). The company has different warehouses and usesfor the storage of its products. Apple has strong distributionchannels including working with the online stores, retail stores,wholesalers, retailers and direct sales. Additionally, Apple also hasreverse logistics to where it recycles its products in order toreduce waste and also offers warranty return for all its products.Additionally, apart from competing with its rivals, Apple alsoensures that its products compete against each other.
Comparisonof Apply against its key rivals
Apple is one of the top players in thetechnology industry in the world. It has a wide range of competitorsdepending on the type of market operations of its products. Forexample, it has competitors such as Samsung in the smart phones andTV market, its hardware and software is challenged by Microsoft, andit is also challenged in the cloud storage by Google Company. Whencompared with Samsung, Apple is effective in its value chain becauseit has a sophisticated network in addition to having a strong brandin the market. Samsung on the other hand is usually very fast inintroducing new products in the market. Samsung floods the marketswith new brands and its products are relatively cheaper as comparedto Apple products. For instance, the Samsung smart phones and TVs arerelatively cheaper as compared to Apple smart phones and TV sets. Microsoft, just like apple, develops both hardware and software.Microsoft Company also has high quality products just like apple.However, the main difference between the two companies is thatMicrosoft Company is more dedicated in developing a favorable workingcondition and establishing strong relations with its employees. Thehuman resource management of Microsoft is effective and ensures thatthe issues facing the employees are solved within the right time thusdeveloping a powerful workforce. Apple on the other hand has facedcriticisms for having unfavorable working conditions which have alsodented its image (Haslam et al 37). Apple employees in various partsof the world have also been subjected to tough working conditionsthus losing some of its competent employees to other organizations.
Apple also faces stiff competition from GoogleCompany because Google is formed on powerful infrastructure inaddition to having a strong organizational culture. Google enjoyspowerful infrastructure, market share and innovative services justlike apple. Google and Apple are similar in the sense that they areboth very innovative with strong market presences. Google specializeson wide selection of products just like Apple, including developingoperating systems, android, for running smart phones and the internetservices. Google gets advantage from the fact that it offers cheapinternet services that gives it an effective and cheap way ofpromoting its products as compared to its Apple. The main factor thatmakes Apple, Microsoft and Google to be stiff competitors is due tothe fact that all the three companies offer phones, tablets, TV-basedservices and Operating systems.
Overten years, Apple has remained to be among the leading tech-companiesin the industry. Apple has continued to upgrade its products enablingit to reach a wider market thus boosting its sales. For instance, inthe last 5 years, Apple has been able to enjoy a sales growth rate of29.08%. In 2015, the company had a current ratio of 111% which ishigher than its 2014 of 108%. The cash ratio also increased by 12%from 40% in 2014 to 52% in 2015. Although the company experienced aboost of its profits, its price-to-Earnings Ratio remained at 12.5,which is relatively lower as compared to the average of the industry.
Apple is widely known for having high qualityproducts combined with strong brand presence in the market. Applyinvolves innovations in order to boost its brands in the market.Engagement in innovation and product improvement has enabled thecompany to experience a high increase in sales over the years.Although the company has been successful, the main challenge is thestiff competition in the industry. The company will have to continueengaging in products’ improvement in order to boost its brands anddifferentiate its products from its rivals. Product differentiationwill enable the company to stand out in the industry and also helpthe customers to easily spot Apple brands in the market. Apart fromproduct differentiation, the other critical issue is its high prices.Apple’s smart phones are very expensive as compared to Samsung’ssmart phones. This basically means Apple will have to look for waysto expand its operations to where it will be able to reduce its costof production in order to reduce the prices of its products in themarket. This will be a good strategy that Apple can use to enlargeits market presence and also attract more customers for smart phonesespecially from emerging economies.
LongTerm Objectives and Strategies
The environment has become of a great concernto customers in various parts of the world. Apple’s first strategyis to enhance its environmental responsibility and the second is toleverage on innovations and products development. Environmentalresponsibility has been one of the major strategies of Apple byembracing renewable energy sources. Although the company has highlybeen ranked for the use of clean energy in over 94% of itsoperations, it’s some in-store locations do not have sufficientaccess of renewable energy. By incorporating clean energy, Apple willbe able to win more customers especially environmental consciouscustomers.
The other long-term goal is utilizing itsdesigning and innovations ability to boost its product growth. Withthe ever-changing technology industry and stiff competition, it isvery important to always enhance its competitive advantage. Thelong-term strategy of Apple of winning a big market share isdeveloping new products in addition to engaging in productdifferentiation. Additionally, in order to win customers in newmarkets, the company plans to engage in extensive product promotion.
Corporate Level strategic alternatives
Thefirst corporate level strategy that Apple can engage in is expansionstrategy. The growth of global economy and the emerging economies,presents a good opportunity that Apple can use to expand itsoperations and customer base. Embracing expansion strategies willenable Apple to enter new markets, boost its sales as well as enhanceits level of profits. In order to fully embrace expansion strategy,the company should conduct a market research in order to get theactual performance of its products and desires of the target market.Apple can expand its operations through four ways concentration,integration, diversification, cooperation and internationalization.Concentration methods involve promoting the existing product in theexisting market, promoting the existing product to a new market andlaunching a new product in the existing market. Currently, Apple hasembraced a vertical integration whereby it will be the source of allits parts that makes up its products such as micro-processor.Integration can be vertical, horizontal, forward or backward. Theexpansion through cooperation involves engaging in merges, takeover,joint ventures and strategic ventures. Since Apple is a wellestablished company, it can expand into new markets throughacquisitions. Taking over small firms in emerging markets in Asia andAfrica will be a powerful strategy that will enable Apple to controlits operations as well as establish and sustain strong bases in itsmarkets.
Stabilitystrategies are also effective in helping a company to sustain itsperformance in the industry. Apple has strong innovative powercombined with effective value chain, which means, it has to embracestrategies that will enable the company to take informed decisions.Basically, the stability strategies do not involve altering thestrategic plans of the organization but evaluating the outcomes ofthe strategy and making more cautioned methods in the implementationof the strategy.
BusinessLevel Strategic Alternatives
Strategicalliances are the strategies that are mostly used by businesses tofoster their objectives in the industry. Strategic alliance iscritical for the success of a business in terms of achieving itsobjectives. For instance, when Apple engages in an alliance with itscompetitors, it will not only benefit from high revenue returns, butalso experience a significant reduction in the cost of production.The other benefit of strategy alliance is that it enables the firmsto protect their competitive advantage and common competency of theplayers in the industry in addition enjoying effective riskmitigation. Other advantages are that strategic alliance provides afirm with a clear future strategy as well as an effective strategyfor protecting the industry from new entrants. The other strategy isrestructuring the operations of the company to suit new changes inthe industry. This strategy involves engaging in new productdiversification and new strategies to boost the operations of theorganization.
AlthoughApple is one of the largest technologies in the world, it still hasopportunities to boost its growth. The available opportunitiesespecially in the international market means the organization canstill exploit new growth. One of the strategies that make SamsungCompany more effective in the industry is its extensive and strongdistribution network. Apple will have to enlarge its market presenceby opening new distribution channels especially in economies that areexperiencing fast growth in regions such south America and Africa. Inemerging economies, the company can also enhance its sales bystrengthening the demands for its Smartphone and tablets. Apple canstrengthen the demand for its products by incorporating productpromotion tactics such as advertisements, teaching the target marketson how to use the products and making attractive prices. In the locallevel or in the markets that Apple has already established itsproducts especially in a country like the United States, Apple canfurther its performance by innovating in a new product line. BecauseApple has already established its brands in domestic markets, Appleshould now focus more on enlarging its international markets (Khan etal pp 957).
Thestrategic choice approach is used by the organization in makingsuitable decisions for. In strategic planning process, various issuesemerges which requires the organization to have a strong decisionmaking strategy. Basically, the strategic choice approach focuses onthe decision to be made regardless of the deadline. The strategy alsohelps to address the uncertainties that may face a particulardecision. The best factor about strategic choice approach is that itgives room for future adjustment of the decision. The approach isincremental and requires commitment throughout the implementationprocess of the decision. Additionally, the strategic choice approach,unlike other strategies, provides a framework for interaction of themembers in the decision making process. In understanding theuncertainty when working towards a decision, the team should have adeeper investigation especially on uncertainties in the workingenvironment and clear objectives in the guiding values. Apple’sstrategic choice for boosting its performance is throughacquisitions. The success of this strategy is basically based onApple’s ability to win the trust of other firms by having powerfulbrands and quality products in the market.
As a company with strong brand and highlyinnovation power, the short-term objective should focus on reachingits products to the international markets. In some internationalmarkets, Apple makes very low sales because the demand for smartphones and tablets is low. In the short run, the tech-company shouldengage in extensive promotion to reach many more customers. Thecompany should first engage in continuous product promotions inaddition to streamlining its ethic and corporate socialresponsibility activities. In the international platform, theorganization plans at embracing the use of renewable energy in allits functions as part of its long-term strategy of promotingenvironmental responsibility across all its operations.
It is very important for an organization tohave both long-term and short-term strategies for achieving itsobjectives. As one of the largest tech-giants, the long-termstrategies of Apple involves expanding the market presence byintroducing high quality brands (Jinjin pp 94). The short-termstrategy of the organization should involve engaging in tactics thatwill help in boost consumer demands for its products. The short termstrategy of Apple should involve engaging in extensive products’promotions in order to reach more clients in the market. The companyshould also focus on differentiation to having the client easilydifferentiate Apple’s products and its rivals. Basically, thecompany will need to work with its distributors and sellers of itsproducts to design promotions strategies.
Key institutionalization Processes
According to McKinsey 7-S framework provides 7factors that help to determine whether an organization is wellpositioned to achieve its intended objectives. The 7-S framework isdivided into 3 hard elements and 4 soft elements. The 3 hard elementsof 7-S framework are Strategy, structure, and system, and the 4 softelements of 7-S framework are shared values, skills, style and staff.For Apple to increase and sustain its growth, it has to focus onimplementing a powerful strategic plan. A strategic plan encompassesall the plans of the organization to boost its competitive advantage.The other key requirement is having a strong system. The system ismainly aimed at ensuring that the daily activities of theorganization are flowing according to the schedules and towards theoverall strategy of the organization. It is also very important toput much emphasis on the staffs of the organization in order toensure that the organization has the right people to help achieve theobjectives of the strategic plan. Although Apple has been able toachieve much success through exceptional innovations, the company hasnot been having strong relationship with its staffs and challenges inthe supply chain. This means if the company can boost talentsmanagement, then it will not only achieve stronger relations with itstaffs but also boost the level of innovations. Since Apple alreadyhas an effective Value Chain, the company should sustain the valuechain by incorporating new growth opportunities.
Ethicsand Social Responsibility of Apple Company
Engagingin ethical practices and social responsibility activities is one ofthe strategies that organizations can use to enhance theircompetitive advantage. According to Ethical consumer, Apple Companyrates at 62% in ethical practices because of various criticisms fromits engagement in unethical practices (Ethical Consumer par 3). Applehas on various occasions been criticized for engaging in unethicalbusiness practices such as unfavorable manufacturing methods,anti-competitive behaviors and lawsuits from its unethical practices.Unethical practices is damaging to the corporate image as well as tothe amount of sales. The customer service team of Apple Company hasbeen criticized for providing inaccurate information on its productsand warranties. Apple is one of the technology companies that havebeen entangled in various litigations touching on its operations. Thenumerous lawsuits and restrictions that have faced the company haveenabled it to learn from its mistakes and realign its operations inaccordance with the different laws that cover the industry. Most ofthe issues that have faced Apple revolve around unethical practicesin the supply chain, environmental issues and going against the laborlaws. In order to counter the various issues facing the company,Apple has established various policies in order to streamline itsoperations with the requirements of the industry. The companypresents yearly supplier responsibility in order to ensure that thesuppliers are meeting it’s the required standards in terms of laborlaws. For instance, Apple has followed up to ensure that workers intin mines in Indonesia are subjected to right working conditions, aconcern that has helped Apple to win a higher rating of 7 out of11from the ethical consumer. The company has also set up internalworkplace policies to ensure that the employees in the organizationalso enjoy a favorable workplace (Ethical Consumer par 3). One of thecorporate social responsibility activities that the Companyparticipates in is supporting local communities through its GlobalVolunteer Program. The company also has an education and developmentprogram where it empowers its employees by offering them variouscourses to boost their skills. It is a program that has helped over280, 000 workers gain different skills.
Strategic controls helps in monitoring theimplementation process of a strategy plan. Basically, the mainpurpose of having strategic controls is to track the progress of thestrategic plan in order to identify the changes or affecting factorsthus make adjustments. There are three main controls that are veryimportant for a tech-giant, like apple, that is competing in a widerange of markets with equally powerful players in the industry:special alert control, implementation control and strategicsurveillance. The special alert control aims at addressing theunexpected event in the organization. A good example can be when oneof competitions of Apple is acquired by another organization. In sucha situation, Apple will need to devise new strategies of counteringthe stiff competition that will have been developed by the merger.
The implementation control is meant to ensurethe strategy of the organization is going as it was planned.Generally, in the strategy plan involves a series of steps that whichshould be monitored to ensure they are flowing at it was planned. Theimplementation control is made of two types of controls thestrategic thrusts and milestone reviews. The strategic thrust focuson the evaluations of the general project to examines whether it hasbeen successful according to the goals and objectives. Additionally,the thrust strategy is oversees the implementation of the strategicplan to ensure that all steps have been followed. The milestonereview, on the other hand, focus on the evaluation of the strategy onintervals (Simons & Robert par 7). Evaluating the intervalprogress of the strategic plan is effective because it helps toidentify the effectiveness of the strategy early enough in order toconduct and adjustment. Apple operates in a wide range of marketswhich is why it is also important to embrace strategic surveillance.Strategic surveillance is designed to examine the various events inthe industry. Strategic surveillance is important in collecting vitalinformation about the industry from materials such as journals, blogsand industrial survey sites. Surveillance control is importantbecause it helps an organization to formulated new plans depending onanticipated reports about the industry or its competitors.
Thetechnology industry is fast changing and facing stiffs competitionfrom the existing tech-giants in the industry. Technology companiesare engaging in various product development in order to ensure astrongly customer loyalty. One factor that gives apple an advantageis the fact that the company has highly competent technicians andemployees that helps the company to innovate some high qualityproducts. It high rate of innovations ensures the company islaunching high quality products that meet the desires of thecustomers. However, even with the quality innovations, it is veryimportant for the organization to uphold good relations with itsstakeholders. Apart from innovations, one of the factors that willenable Apple to strengthen its brand equity will depend on its imagein the industry. Apple can improve its brand equity by strictlyadhering to its labor and supply policies and also continue makingethical decisions. Apple will have to work with its suppliers, staffsand other stakeholders to promote the image of the organization.Having been awarded with 100% clean Energy Index is a clear show thatApple is focused on helping in dealing with various issues facing theworld such as global warming and emissions. Sustenance of suchprogram will enable the company to win more customers through thecreation of a positive image.
Apple Inc. About Apple. 2016.http://www.apple.com/about/Accessed 4 October, 2016.
Ethical Consumer. Ethical Practices of Apple.2015.20.http://www.ethicalconsumer.org/companystories.aspx?CompanyId=12944&CategoryId=421Accessed 2 October, 2016
Gereffi, Gary, and Timothy Sturgeon. "14Global value chain-oriented industrial policy: the role of emergingeconomies." Global value chainsin a changing world (2013): 329.
Grundy, Tony. "Rethinking and reinventingMichael Porter`s five forces model." StrategicChange 15.5 (2006): 213-229.
Haslam, Colin, et al. "Apple`s financialsuccess: The precariousness of power exercised in global valuechains." Accounting Forum.Vol. 37. No. 4. Elsevier, 2013.
Hazelbaker, A. (2015). Burlington, Vermont.
Jinjin, T. A. N. "Strategic Analysis ofApple Computer Inc. & Recommendations for the Future Direction."Management Science and Engineering7.2 (2013): 94.
Khan, Usman Ali, Mohammd Noor Alam, and ShabbirAlam. "A Critical Analysis of Internal and External Environmentof Apple Inc." InternationalJournal of Economics, Commerce and Management3.6 (2015): 955-961.
Simons, Robert. Leversof control: how managers use innovative control systems to drivestrategic renewal. Harvard BusinessPress, 2013.