School of Psychology and Public Health Behavioral Neuroscience 1B (PSY1BNB) Stress Practical 2016

Schoolof Psychology and Public Health Behavioral Neuroscience 1B (PSY1BNB)Stress Practical 2016

Tableof Content

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………….3

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………..4

Method………………………………………………………………………………………….5

Results………………………………………………………………………………………….12

Discussion……………………………………………………………………………………..13

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………….15

ABSTRACT

Itis beyond doubt that for any species, male or female to survive thereis much need for the right psychological responses especially to theenvironmental as well as homeostatic challenges. Maintenance andreestablishment of homeostasis involves the control and coordinationof the automatic and neuroendocrine stress systems. Essentially, theoverall responses to stress are interceded through the principallyintersecting paths in the hypothalamus, limbic forebrain as well asin the brainstem, and as such, there can be a respective contributionof both the neuroendocrine as well as the autonomic systems which aretuned as per the stressor modality or intensity. The limbic regions,in particular, are accountable for the control of the responses tostress, and they, therefore, interconnect with the circuits which arealso accountable for the brain memory. This gives the power to modifythe stress reaction in accordance with the earlier experience as wellas the outcomes. The primary objective of this lab report is toinvestigate the autonomic and endocrine reactions to psychologicalstress. We will be examining the variations in subjective,behavioral, and hormonal signs of stress in both genders on astressor. Our primary interest is the reactivity in the men ascompared to the women.

Schoolof Psychology and Public Health Behavioral Neuroscience 1B (PSY1BNB)Stress Practical 2016

Theadaptation as far as stress is concerned is a major issue or priorityin all living beings. Stress can be defined in broad terms as areal/anticipated interference of the homeostasis. It can also bedefined as the expected threat especially to the well-being of theorganism. The stressor associated information from the key sensorysystems such as the interoceptive cues like the blood volume,osmolality and/ exteroceptive cues like how the predator smells iscoordinated to the brain which in turn recruits the neural as well asthe neuroendocrine effectors or systems so as to minimize the totalcost or damage to the organism (Collins, 1985). The psychologicalresponse to the stress necessarily involves a very effectual andwell-kept set of interrelated structures which targets at maintainingthe mental integrity especially when the circumstances are mostdemanding.

TheANS offers the most instant reaction to the stressor experiencethrough the parasympathetic and the sympathetic arms that give swiftadjustments in the psychological states via the neural interventionof the end organs (Tersman et al., 1991). For instance, sympathoadrenomedullary arm could very quickly surge the pulse and as aresult, increase the blood pressure in split seconds by theexcitation of the cardiovascular system. Importantly the excitationof the ANS decreases rapidly because of the activation of the reflexparasympathetic which results in short time responses (Uchino et al.,1995)

Method

SubjectsThe main subject of study wereStudents from Bendigo, Bundoora and the AW colleges of the La TrobeUniversity295 students are enrolled in thesubject

BehavioralNeuroscience 1B (PSY1BNB) students provided complete data

There were seventy-nine males andone hundred and seventy-three females who participated in theexperiment in class.The Variables used in theexperiment

Theexperiment manipulated two types of variables. The first variablethat was used in the analysis is thesexof the participants. The other variable manipulated in the experimentwas stress.

Severalmeasurements were indeed taken with the aim of investigating theeffect of the stressor, public speaking, as well as for examining thefundamental differences in respect to stress response in the men andwomen. The Independent factors that were utilized in the test werediastolicbloodsystolicbloodstress,personalstress, Heat beat,and the cortisol(µg/L).

Expressive statisticsTable 1

Mean scores and Standard Deviation for Males on Measures ofSubjective Rating, Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure, Heart Rateand Cortisol levels.

Sex

&nbsp

Male

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

Time

&nbsp

Baseline

After presentation

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

Subjective rating

Mean

2.89

4.52

&nbsp

Std. Dev.

1.49

1.55

Systolic BP

Mean

&nbsp130.89

140.92

&nbsp

Std. Dev.

&nbsp14.27

15.74

Diastolic BP

Mean

&nbsp71.32

73.43

&nbsp

Std. Dev.

&nbsp11.83

11.86

Heart rate

Mean

&nbsp71.51

83.27

&nbsp

Std. Dev.

&nbsp13.25

18.08

Cortisol

Mean

&nbsp1.82

4.70

&nbsp

Std. Dev.

&nbsp1.14

2.70

Table 2

Mean scores and Standard Deviation for Females on Measures ofSubjective Rating, Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure, Heart Rateand Cortisol levels.

Sex

&nbsp

Female

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

Time

&nbsp

Baseline

After presentation

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

Subjective rating

Mean

&nbsp3.60

6.90

&nbsp

Std. Dev.

&nbsp1.78

1.66

Systolic BP

Mean

122.91

131.90

&nbsp

Std. Dev.

14.45

14.27

Diastolic BP

Mean

&nbsp75.79

78.89

&nbsp

Std. Dev.

&nbsp10.89

9.39

Heart rate

Mean

&nbsp75.83

91.89

&nbsp

Std. Dev.

&nbsp13.82

18.51

Cortisol

Mean

&nbsp1.56

2.76

&nbsp

Std. Dev.

.88

1.83

Test for significantdifferences

A2 by 2 which is also assorted between and within ANOVA was done onevery dependent variable: systolic BP subjective stress rating, heartrate, diastolic BP, and cortisol. This, therefore, shows that a sumof 5 ANOVAs were done.

Theseparticular ANOVAs were done by use of an assorted design since theindependent factor sex divides the groups’ variable, while theparticular independent variable stress is a recurrent measuresfactor. This therefore shows that the dependent variables forinstance the heart rate, were tested at two dissimilar pointssignifying various degrees of stress (e.g., on baseline and afterpresentation) and also athwart the various groups (e.g., the malesand females).

Also,with an ANOVA it becomes even simpler or conceivable to examine theimpacts of discrete independent variables (key effects) in additionto the interaction effect.

Results

Systolic BP

Figure1.

SubjectiveSystolic BP Rating for males and females at baseline and after thepresentation.

Asdemonstrated in Figure 1 between baseline and stress there was anincrease in systolic BP rating and females had lower SBPR than males.This was no significantly different, F(1,244)=.26, p&gt.05.

Thecentral impact of stress on the systolic BP wassubstantial, F(1,244)=89.65, p&lt.001.

Thekey impact of sex on the systolic BP wassubstantial, F(1,244)= 23.63, p&lt.001.

Diastolic BP

Figure1

SubjectiveDiastolic BP Rating for males and females at baseline and after thepresentation.

Asseen in Figure 1 between baseline and stress there was an increase indiastolic BP rating, importantly, females had higher DBPR than males.This was no significantly different, F(1,244)=.46, p&gt.05.

Themajor impact of stress on the diastolic BP wassubstantial, F(1,244)=12.76, p&lt.001.

Themajor impact of sex on the diastolic BP wassubstantial,F(1,244)=14.79, p&lt.001.

Heart Rate

Figure1.

SubjectiveHeart Rate Rating for males and females at baseline and after thepresentation.

Asdemonstrated in Figure 1 between baseline and stress there was anincrease in heart rate rating, and males had lower HRR than females.This was no significantly different,

F(1,244)=.32,p&gt.05.

Thekey effect of the stress on heart rate wastrivial, F(1,244)=168.75,p&lt.001.

Thekey effect of the sex on heart rate wastrivial,F(1,244)=10.81,p&lt.001.

Cortisol

Figure1.

SubjectiveCortisol Rating for males and females at baseline and after thepresentation.

Asdemonstrated in Figure 1 between the baseline and the stress it wasnoted that there was an increase in the heart rate rating,importantly, females had lower CR than males. This was a verysignificant difference, F(1,244)=31.34,p&lt.001.

Thecore impact of the stress on cortisol wasnoteworthy, F(1,244)=184.28, p&lt.001.

Thecore impact of sex on cortisol wasnoteworthy, F(1,244)=40.32, p&lt.001.

Discussion

Theargument can be summed up using the above results. We wanted toestablish whether there are changes in the subjective reports ofstress measurement, whether we are to expect any changes in BP aswell as HR measures due to the stressors and also whether we are toexpect any changes in salivary cortisol levels which are measuredbecause of stress. We also sought to establish whether there are anydifferences that exist in the five measurements, against time(Kirschbaum et al., 1992). We also wanted to determine whether thereis any interaction regarding patterns between the males and femalesaveraged across time for the precise measurements. The results can besummed up using the chart below.

Time

Sex

Interaction

Subjective Rating

&nbspIncrease

F

Higher rate of growth for females

BP Systolic

Increase&nbsp

M&nbsp

No&nbsp

BP Diastolic

Increase&nbsp

&nbspF

No&nbsp

Heart Rate

Increase&nbsp

&nbspF

No&nbsp

Cortisol

Increase&nbsp

&nbspM

Higher rate of increase for males&nbsp

Conclusion

Thestressor associated information from the key sensory systems such asthe interoceptive cues like the blood volume, osmolality and/exteroceptive cues like how the predator smells is coordinated to thebrain which in turn recruits the neural as well as the neuroendocrineeffectors or systems so as to minimize the total cost or damage tothe organism (Pomerleau, 1990). The psychological response to thestress necessarily involves a very effectual and well-preserved setof interrelated structures which targets at maintaining the mentalintegrity especially when the circumstances are most demanding. Thefemales` stressor factors are different from those of males. As timeincrease the interaction between stress and subjective rating is thatthere is a higher rate of growth for females, as time increase thereis no interaction between BP systolic, BP Diastolic and Pulse and themales. There is an active interaction between cortisol and stressorfor the males as time increases (Alâ Absi et al., 1997).

References

Al’Absi,M., Bongard, S., Buchanan, T., Pincomb, G.A., Licinio, J., &ampLovallo, W.R. (1997). Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine adjustment topublic speaking and mental arithmetic stressors. Psychophysiology,34, 266-275.

Collins,A. (1985). Sex differences in psychoneuroendocrine stress responses:Biological and social influences. Stockholm: Karolinska Institute.

Kirschbaum,C., Wüst, S., &amp Hellhammer, D.H. (1992). Consistent sexdifferences in cortisol responses to psychological stress.Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 648-657.

Kirschbaum,C., Wüst, S., &amp Strasburger, C.J. (1992). “Normal”cigarette smoking increases free cortisol in habitual smokers. LifeSciences, 50, 435-442.

Pomerleau,O.F., &amp Pomerleau, C.S. (1990). Cortisol responses to apsychological stressor and/or nicotine. Pharmacology, Biochemistry &ampBehavior, 36, 211-213.

Tersman,Z., Collings, A., &amp Eneroth, P. (1991). Cardiovascular responsesto psychological and physiological stressors during the menstrualcycle. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53, 185-197.

Uchino,B.N., Cacioppo, J.T., Malarkey, W., &amp Glaser, R. (1995).Individual differences in cardiac sympathetic control predictendocrine and immune responses to acute psychological stress. Journalof Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 736-743.