Research Methodology



BriefOverview of the Study

Highincarceration rates in the country have raised storm from variousquarters, including the justice system. Another worrying trend is theskyrocketing frequency of recidivism. Some people are re-arrested forsimilar or new crimes. The deterrence and restorative justiceapproach used to reduce the matter is not appropriate. Identifyingempirical research on the issue under discussion is possible. Aninvestigator can quickly engage officials in correctional facilitiesto help in identifying the inferences and applicability ofrestorative justice and other appropriate means of addressingrecidivism. The study seeks to examine alternative measures that cancontribute to tackling the matter besides dealing with offenders. Indealing with the matter, the researcher will utilize three primarymethods in the collection of information, namely, observation,interviewing, and questionnaire. The three approaches will assist incollecting first-hand information from the participants who have abetter understanding of the justice system. As such, the plan willseek answers from administrators in the justice system, families, andvictims.


  1. What are the appropriate strategies and frameworks that the justice system can institute to reduce the high rates of recidivism?

  2. Can reforming the rehabilitation and deterrence of criminals programs assist in reducing recidivism for both juvenile and adult inmates?

Hypothesis:Enhancing the quality of standard of pre-release services andrestorative justice can help reduce the prevalence of recidivism.

IndependentVariable:Rate of Recidivism

DependentVariable:Rehabilitation, deterrence, restorative justice, and frameworks bythe justice system



Researchdesign involves a review of the appropriate approach to collect datathat would help inform a given study. Primarily, research designseeks to explore the most feasible method to obtain answers to thestudy questions and hypothesis. The magnitude of the research informsthe design chosen by a researcher. The aim is to link the variablesand research methods. Credible findings are only realized if theexplorer utilizes reliable and appropriate methods (Bryman, 2015).The investigator intends to use both primary and secondary sources ofinformation. The approach necessitates for utilization of primary andsecondary methods to generate information regarding the matter understudy. A quasi-experimental design is appropriate to address thetopic as well as help to examine appropriate measures to address therecidivism rates. The target population for the study includesinmates, probationers, police departments, and families. Secondaryinformation will be generated through a review of previous academicmaterials such as books and journals as well as news articles fromthe government sources and non-government ones (Bryman, 2015).

DataCollection Process

Throughobservation method, the canvasser will seek information from fourgroups that will comprise 15 participants who have been recentlyreleased from prison. Ordinary observation does not require thepollster to give figures or undertake statistical analysis. Thefirst group will comprise of inmates with a long sentence torepresent deterrence method. Another faction will have convictsundergoing a rehabilitation program. The third set has victimsexperiencing the restorative justice, with the last assemblage takingall aspects of the three approaches. Observations made are criticaltowards supplementing the answers provided in the questionnaires. Theinterviewer/researcher obtains additional data from respondents byinterviewing professionals with experience in the justice system. Thetechnique seeks to examine the behavior of inmates and responsestowards various interventions after serving jail terms.

Thesecond important method for use in the collection of data is theinterview process. The approach will entail discussions withprofessionals in the justice system as well as families of thevictims. The assessor will question families of incarceratedindividuals and practitioners working in the justice system. Theprocess will entail asking queries that seek to understand reasonsfor the high recidivism rates. In particular, the researcher willattempt to find the existing programs and the likelihood of failingto correct inmates. Additionally, the professionals will assist ingetting measures that can be used to rectify the current situation.In collecting data through the method, the researcher will seek tofind answers to resources available to support reforms in the justicesystem. Interviewing family members of the victims will aid tocomprehend their views on why the victims continue engaging incrimes. It is hoped that the family members will provide informationon the society’s willingness to allow re-integration of freedinmates. The interview will also examine ranging issues regarding theinstitutional commitment towards addressing the distinct needs ofincarcerated individuals. Further, a neutral position will beconsidered by interviewing human rights activists who work in closecollaboration with the justice system (Afari, Osei, &amp Adu-Agyem,2015).

Thelast method for use by the investigator is the questionnaire method.In this approach, the canvasser prepares a set of questions to helpin gathering data to inform a study. It is appropriate for theassessor to have a prior understanding of the research since thequestions determine the nature of responses. The questionnaires willcontain both open-ended and close-ended problems in an attempt toobtain personal alternatives concerning the research problem. Themethod also recommends a set of follow-up questions to help gatherclarifications after the first exercise. The approach is appropriateas it helps in eliminating biases as well as misleading information.The questions will be emailed to participants, including sampledfamilies and professionals within the justice system. Some of thepre-prepared questions include crimes with high recidivism rates,family support to inmates, and rehabilitation programs, among others(Afari, Osei, &amp Adu-Agyem, 2015).

Throughthe information collected, the justice system is expected to generateappropriate interventions and measures. The future strategicdirection to address recidivism is highly dependent on the quality ofprograms and reintegration in the society (Helmus et al., 2012). Theresponses from the selected respondents were used to inform theactual results. The researcher will make sure that the questionnairesare filled and sealed to enhance their credibility. It is noteworthythat the approach is less prone to biased results since the analysisis based on primary data. The questionnaires helped the assessor inobtaining first-hand information about the particular researchproblem. Further, they will assist in providing the neededconfidentiality and anonymity of the respondents, thus, helping toobtain a high response rate and accurate information. It was expectedthat generating from the stakeholders would create privacy issues,hence, the need to use the process (Taxman, Pattavina, &amp Caudy,2014).

Protectionof participants is instrumental in any study. Confidentiality ofinformation will be enhanced to eliminate fear and biased responses.In this regard, the scholar will seek authority to undertake theresearch from the respective bodies. Before interviewing anyparticipant, the analyst will request for appropriate consent.Permission will be requested from the Department of Justice since thematter is sensitive, and requires authorization like other forms ofstudies.


Afari,S., Osei, M., &amp Adu-Agyem, J. (2015). Recidivism at the KumasiCentral Prison: A look into guidance and counselling services.Journalof Education and Practice,6(9),130-136.

Bryman,A. (2015). Socialresearch methods.Oxford: Oxford university press.

Helmus,L., Hanson, R., Thornton, D., Babchishin, K., &amp Harris, A.(2012). Absolute recidivism rates predicted by Static-99R andStatic-2002R sex offender risk assessment tools vary across samples:A meta-analysis. CriminalJustice and Behavior,39(9),1148-1171.

Taxman,F., Pattavina, A., &amp Caudy, M. (2014). Justice reinvestment inthe United States: An empirical assessment of the potential impact ofincreased correctional programming on recidivism. Victims&amp Offenders,9(1),50-75.