Motivation of the study
PPA patients willing to participate in the research were themotivation of the survey. This studyimproved the comparison of the findings received from the affectedsubjects together with those having an intact verbal comprehension(Sonty et al., 2003). The researcherattempted to identify patients with functional substrates andneuroanatomical aspects.
In addition to establishing the problems, the researchers also wantedto find solutions. They would assist these patients in conductingtasks related to languages. The initialobservation of these patients was challengedwere as a result of a change in stylerather than an inability to understand therequirements of a given task. While undertaking the study, theresearchers were interested in discovering the factors leading todefects in PPA patients.
During the research, it was establishedthat aspects of abnormality exhibited either defective inhibition inPPA group or extreme neuronal recruitment (Sonty et al.,2003). Additionally, this anomaly couldindicate inhibitory control, which is impaired and it comes fromatrophic regions. It could also originate from recruitment ofincluded areas, as a result of dysfunction in the language network.
The researchers established the determinants for inhibiting thedistribution of neural activity to regions out of the connectednetwork. The activation areas indicated the surfacing of neuronalapproaches for processing language (Sonty et al.,2003). Alternatively, hey could also showthe disintegration of neuronalpassageways. The regions of atrophy related to PPA that confines tothe left area of temporoparietal, are expected to maintain somepremorbid response traits if there are no abnormalities in theresidual neurons found in atrophic regions.
The study utilized 14 patients who had an intact verbalcomprehension. The patients were categorizedas either fluent or non-fluent. To identify their cognitivefunctions, the patients underwent a neuropsychological test inseveral realms. All patients were givencertain behavioral tasks, which examined their evaluation of words.Additionally, patients underwent functional resonance imaging. Thedata received from FMRI was analyzed usingUNIX/Linux tools (Sonty et al., 2003).
There was a masked analysis performed to establish the significanceof intergroup comparison. Certain parameterapproximations were made to describefurther FMRI response received from each group’s tasks. MRI scanswere also processed in particular ways tomake them helpful in the research.
When the neurological evaluation was done,it revealed there were naming and word finding difficulties. Also,there were various levels of dysgraphia. Patients with these problemswere noted to be non-fluent, andcomprehension was low. When tested on language tests, these patientsexhibited impairments. Some patientsrevealed impairments neuropsychological examinations requiring aresponse or verbal comprehension (Sonty etal., 2003).
When compared with the standard control group for semantic tasks andphonology, patients expressed a significant increase in the time withregards to the reaction. After analyzinggray matter, it was discovered thatpatients’ gray matter had decreased (Sonty et al.,2003). FMRI results indicate that PPA patients and the standardcontrol group had powerful networks ofregions.
Conclusion and Implicationof the study
Patients expressed abnormal activation when told to read letterstrings and identify them. These abnormal activations are not presentin other normal subjects conducting the similar tasks. The researchimplies atrophic areas with residual neurons contain some premorbidresponse traits (Sonty et al., 2003).
Sonty, S. P., Mesulam, M., Thompson, C. K., Johnson, N.A., Weintraub,S., Parrish, T.B. & Gitelman, D.R. (2003). Primary progressiveAphasia: PPA and the language networks. Annals of neurology,53(1) p. 35-49.