Chapter2 Outline

  • Scientific Method is the assessment of hypotheses to theories for which one can reflect on evidence. It helps to contradict or confirm a concept.

  • Parsimonious model entails the concept of depending on the fewest number of basic assumptions and confirming bias as a product of predisposed memory. In this case, empirical evidence can be derived from experimenting or observing a small number of representatives of an entire population.

  • A convenience sample is a unit of subjects chosen due to its ease of convenience in a study. It involves taking a small percentage people, ethnic groups, and age brackets.

  • Random sample strategy becomes practicable in a situation where every subject in the population is considered equal and can be selected at random. However, a cross-cultural sample can only work where a group has individuals from two or more different cultures.

  • Correlational studies tend to scrutinize the connection between variables. They measure the correlation between two variables and consider (-1) or (+1) as a strong ones while those close to zero (0) are seen as weak or as having no link at all.

  • Naturalistic observation is the process of judiciously checking and analyzing the behaviors of subjects to a study under their natural phenomena. It is normally done with animals.

  • A comprehensive scrutiny and portrayal of a single individual sample is only appropriate when conducted under unusual conditions. It causes the confidence that one is a familiar with a situation.

  • Scatter plots show the connection between variables. Greater absolute value indicates intense relationship irrespective of their direction.

  • A positive relationship (+), is used to show the concurrent progression of all the variables in the same direction.

  • A negative correlation (-), is a situation where a positive change in one variable leads to a negative change in another.

  • Two scenarios may be joined but this may not lead to changes on either because of the lack of possible third variable. Such a situation can be countered when an independent variable is obtained.

Chapter2 Summary

Thechapter offers practical evidence on the biological foundation ofpsychology. It centers on concrete evidence and gives variousexplanations through theoretical perspectives. More importantly, thechapter covers the topic of consciousness and explains the psychologyas well as the functioning of the brain in its various states. As away of emphasizing on the concept of consciousness, the authorexplores the mind and explains the features that make dreamsseparable from reality. The three core subjects of the chapterinclude sampling, surveying and the use of theories to expound onresults for more comprehensive evidence.


Youcall out your 14-year-old female cousin for calling a classmate awhore. She says it’s not sexist because she calls boys man whores.How do you respond?

Beforeresponding to a situation like this, it is crucial to note thatdisrespect for peers and elders is a normal part of adolescent growthand development. This is because they are in the process where theyare learning to express themselves and at the same time testing outfree ideas. In spite of this, I would not advocate for name callingat any cost.

Thefirst step I would take upon summoning my teenage cousin is to stopthe offensive habit. Females who engage themselves in such behaviorsare labeled with terms that are not so pleasing. For instance,negative terminologies to identify them are a slut, whore,prostitute, tramp, hooker, nympho, vixen, and bitch. I would tell herthat culturally, women are do not have the luxury to give in to theirsexual desires as men. Males do not share the same ethical purity andmorality on matters regarding sex placed on women`s shoulders.However, some terms are considered positive when referring to them.These include words like a bad girl, sexy, and hot.

Mynext step would be trying to establish whether my cousin has got anyproblems from home because studies show that children and teenagersuse bullying as a way to take out anger and frustration on weakertargets when bullied or abused at home. This would lead me to thenext step where I would advise my cousin on other ways of expressingher emotions rather than insulting others.

Finally,I would have my cousin face the classmate and apologize for callingher names. I would make her understand that being called a whoredoesn’t make her one and that she should not think that anyonebelieves that she is one. This would restore her confidence whiletaking the power away from my cousin, the name caller. Such asituation will put both of them in a much more empowered platform.