NewYork City Resiliency
Accordingto McPhearson, Timon, Hamstead and Peleg (502), New York is the statenumber eleven which approved the Constitution of the United Statesthus making it possible for admission to the Union on July 26, 1788.From the topographical map, it is evident that the position of NewYork lies in the northeastern United States and borders withPennsylvania, Vermont, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Massachusetts(Figure 1). Of all the states in the United States, New York is thethird most populated with about 19,570,261 citizens within an area ofapproximately 49,170 square mile radius, and its capital is Albany,located in eastern New York. Mainly, resilience can be considered asthe capacity of systems, businesses, institutions, and communitieslocated within a city to develop, survive, and adapt irrespective ofany chronic stresses and acute shock that can emerge the essay NewYork as a case to scrutinize the above ingredients of resiliency.
NewYork’s Vulnerability to Climate Change
Climatechange refers to the fluctuations in weather patterns especially inrespect to temperature that causes changes in sea levels, extremeprecipitations, heat storms, and desertification as well as healthproblems. With such severe weather extremes and sea levels changes,several primary hazards are experienced in New York which in turnhave immediate impacts on people, economies, artificial and naturalenvironment, and agriculture (McPhearson et al. 504).
Forinstance, flooding and extreme rainfall noted in the New Yorkthreatens both the human safety and health through watercontamination food and water supplies have been rendered unsafe forconsumption in many occasions, and insect-borne diseases aredominant. Similarly, climate change has led to high temperatures inNew York and temperature-sensitive agricultural products such as thedairy, apples, and maple syrup are predicted to experience decliningproductivity as the trend continue to increase. Additionally, cropproductivity reduces when the drought become widespread some of thecrops affected by these situations include grains, corn silagealongside a reduction in the availability of drinking water, waterfor irrigation and water to produce power and that donates howdisadvantaged the City is concerning climate change. Moreover, as theice continues to melt, it is forecasted that there will be anincrease in the sea level from 4 inches to 33 inches and beyondfailure to adopt mitigation measures such as reducing greenhouseemission would mean a higher melting of ice, rise in sea level, hightemperatures, and storms in years to come (McPhearson et al. 506).
NewYork’s Future without Resiliency
Resiliencyis very significant for New York City, and its absence can put thefuture of the city in an extremely vulnerable state since there willbe no effective cooperation to help and work together to controlclimate change. First, if the institutions do not work together,there will be an increased flooding due to rise in sea level andstorms that might affect people and natural environment (McPhearsonet al. 509) there will be an adverse risk on socioeconomic andecological resources that can bring down development in New YorkCity.
Arguably,continuous flooding can result in loss of homes and wetlands that canbe a permanent disaster when there is no resilience, and that is verysignificant for management and livelihood issues. Moreover, therewill be a destruction of both private and public property with anextension of the destruction of coastal habitat that forms homes forground spices that are recreationally and commercially important(McPhearson et al. 510).
BuiltEnvironment of New York and Resiliency
Thebuilt environment that constitutes New York area and resiliencyshould be holistic and indulge a team of creative, critical decisionmakers to facilitate the process of discussions deemed at findinglasting solutions to the predicted future tragedies related to theclimate change. Moreover, looking at resiliency ideas within thecontext of the built environment helps to formulate a compellingvision of projects with numerous benefits, for instance, developingbuildings that minimize and or can withstand future hazards(McPhearson et al. 512).
Aperfect example is Hunts Point which is found in New York and itserves two primary purposes of recreation and flood protection itcan be utilized as a reference to coming up with a built environmentthat enhances resiliency. Resilience within New York City can beimproved by developing structures and systems that have the capacityto withstand disaster and continue to function properly even duringthose periods of adverse calamity such as those that were the resultof Hurricane Sandy (McPhearson et al. 511).
TransportModification to Improve New York Resiliency
Infrastructurehas been at jeopardy especially in New York City as a result of thesea level up surging trends, and that calls for modification oftransport systems to improve on resiliency roads, railroads airportsshould be strategically located in New York to enhance rapid movementand connection of different organizations. Similarly, when thestructures identified above are evenly distributed in the cityespecially along the coastal region, it is possible to have themmapped in the coastal resilience tool (McPhearson et al. 506).
Therefore,during constructions, roads must be designed in a manner that theyare above sea level rise and storm surge scenarios that calls forthe location of roads that are at risk upgrading their states in away that can prevent future disaster. Additionally, the mapping isvery effective, and coastal resilience can assist planners tovisualize the placement of new infrastructure into regions that havebeen investigated that they are less susceptible to future sea levelrise and storm damage (McPhearson et al. 506).
EffectiveWay of Resiliency Implementation for New York
Ithas been recommended that New York City should design a method thatallows linkage preparation for near-term disasters and long-termclimate change, moderate activities that ensures there is no muchemission of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere and buildresilience. Additionally, during the initial development stages,there are groups of experts that should be involved in the planningprocess such as the scientist and multiple stakeholders and moreemphasis must be placed on guarding the most exposed areas of the NewYork state (McPhearson et al. 514).
Moreover,the stakeholders involved should ensure that they enhance localcredit worthiness and management skills as well as anticipate joiningcity networks using the existing new methods of developing a moderncity. When these objectives are implemented it can be possible forthe New York City to have an effective way for resilienceimplementation plan the implementation plan should involve an updateof climate projection and urban climate change according to thescientific understanding as the experts continue to learn more aboutresiliency (McPhearson et al. 506).
Resiliencycan be considered as the capacity of systems, businesses,institutions, and communities located within a city to develop,survive, adapt irrespective of any chronic stresses and acute shockthat can emerge. New York’s Vulnerability to Climate Change hasresulted in flooding, and extreme rainfall that has threatened boththe safety and health of human through water contamination food andwater supplies have been rendered unsafe for consumption, andinsect-borne diseases are dominant. Therefore, New York must dependon resilience to ensure that they develop projects that aresustainable and can withstand adverse calamity in case they arise orthe area risks a permanent catastrophe in the years ahead whenpreventive measures are no longer possible.
McPhearson,Timon, Zoé A. Hamstead, and Peleg Kremer. "Urban ecosystemservices for resilience planning and management in New YorkCity." Ambio 43.4(2014): 502-515.
Appendix1: New York City Map
Figure1: Map of New York,http://www.beautifulholidays.com.au/travel-guide/america/usa/maps/new-york-city.php