NewYork City Resiliency

Accordingto McPhearson, Timon, Hamstead and Peleg (502), New York is the statenumber eleven which approved the Constitution of the United Statesthus making it possible for admission to the Union on July 26, 1788.From the topographical map, it is evident that the position of NewYork lies in the northeastern United States and borders withPennsylvania, Vermont, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Massachusetts(Figure 1). Of all the states in the United States, New York is thethird most populated with about 19,570,261 citizens within an area ofapproximately 49,170 square mile radius, and its capital is Albany,located in eastern New York. Mainly, resilience can be considered asthe capacity of systems, businesses, institutions, and communitieslocated within a city to develop, survive, and adapt irrespective ofany chronic stresses and acute shock that can emerge the essay NewYork as a case to scrutinize the above ingredients of resiliency.

NewYork’s Vulnerability to Climate Change

Climatechange refers to the fluctuations in weather patterns especially inrespect to temperature that causes changes in sea levels, extremeprecipitations, heat storms, and desertification as well as healthproblems. With such severe weather extremes and sea levels changes,several primary hazards are experienced in New York which in turnhave immediate impacts on people, economies, artificial and naturalenvironment, and agriculture (McPhearson et al. 504).

Forinstance, flooding and extreme rainfall noted in the New Yorkthreatens both the human safety and health through watercontamination food and water supplies have been rendered unsafe forconsumption in many occasions, and insect-borne diseases aredominant. Similarly, climate change has led to high temperatures inNew York and temperature-sensitive agricultural products such as thedairy, apples, and maple syrup are predicted to experience decliningproductivity as the trend continue to increase. Additionally, cropproductivity reduces when the drought become widespread some of thecrops affected by these situations include grains, corn silagealongside a reduction in the availability of drinking water, waterfor irrigation and water to produce power and that donates howdisadvantaged the City is concerning climate change. Moreover, as theice continues to melt, it is forecasted that there will be anincrease in the sea level from 4 inches to 33 inches and beyondfailure to adopt mitigation measures such as reducing greenhouseemission would mean a higher melting of ice, rise in sea level, hightemperatures, and storms in years to come (McPhearson et al. 506).

NewYork’s Future without Resiliency

Resiliencyis very significant for New York City, and its absence can put thefuture of the city in an extremely vulnerable state since there willbe no effective cooperation to help and work together to controlclimate change. First, if the institutions do not work together,there will be an increased flooding due to rise in sea level andstorms that might affect people and natural environment (McPhearsonet al. 509) there will be an adverse risk on socioeconomic andecological resources that can bring down development in New YorkCity.

Arguably,continuous flooding can result in loss of homes and wetlands that canbe a permanent disaster when there is no resilience, and that is verysignificant for management and livelihood issues. Moreover, therewill be a destruction of both private and public property with anextension of the destruction of coastal habitat that forms homes forground spices that are recreationally and commercially important(McPhearson et al. 510).

BuiltEnvironment of New York and Resiliency

Thebuilt environment that constitutes New York area and resiliencyshould be holistic and indulge a team of creative, critical decisionmakers to facilitate the process of discussions deemed at findinglasting solutions to the predicted future tragedies related to theclimate change. Moreover, looking at resiliency ideas within thecontext of the built environment helps to formulate a compellingvision of projects with numerous benefits, for instance, developingbuildings that minimize and or can withstand future hazards(McPhearson et al. 512).

Aperfect example is Hunts Point which is found in New York and itserves two primary purposes of recreation and flood protection itcan be utilized as a reference to coming up with a built environmentthat enhances resiliency. Resilience within New York City can beimproved by developing structures and systems that have the capacityto withstand disaster and continue to function properly even duringthose periods of adverse calamity such as those that were the resultof Hurricane Sandy (McPhearson et al. 511).

TransportModification to Improve New York Resiliency

Infrastructurehas been at jeopardy especially in New York City as a result of thesea level up surging trends, and that calls for modification oftransport systems to improve on resiliency roads, railroads airportsshould be strategically located in New York to enhance rapid movementand connection of different organizations. Similarly, when thestructures identified above are evenly distributed in the cityespecially along the coastal region, it is possible to have themmapped in the coastal resilience tool (McPhearson et al. 506).

Therefore,during constructions, roads must be designed in a manner that theyare above sea level rise and storm surge scenarios that calls forthe location of roads that are at risk upgrading their states in away that can prevent future disaster. Additionally, the mapping isvery effective, and coastal resilience can assist planners tovisualize the placement of new infrastructure into regions that havebeen investigated that they are less susceptible to future sea levelrise and storm damage (McPhearson et al. 506).

EffectiveWay of Resiliency Implementation for New York

Ithas been recommended that New York City should design a method thatallows linkage preparation for near-term disasters and long-termclimate change, moderate activities that ensures there is no muchemission of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere and buildresilience. Additionally, during the initial development stages,there are groups of experts that should be involved in the planningprocess such as the scientist and multiple stakeholders and moreemphasis must be placed on guarding the most exposed areas of the NewYork state (McPhearson et al. 514).

Moreover,the stakeholders involved should ensure that they enhance localcredit worthiness and management skills as well as anticipate joiningcity networks using the existing new methods of developing a moderncity. When these objectives are implemented it can be possible forthe New York City to have an effective way for resilienceimplementation plan the implementation plan should involve an updateof climate projection and urban climate change according to thescientific understanding as the experts continue to learn more aboutresiliency (McPhearson et al. 506).


Resiliencycan be considered as the capacity of systems, businesses,institutions, and communities located within a city to develop,survive, adapt irrespective of any chronic stresses and acute shockthat can emerge. New York’s Vulnerability to Climate Change hasresulted in flooding, and extreme rainfall that has threatened boththe safety and health of human through water contamination food andwater supplies have been rendered unsafe for consumption, andinsect-borne diseases are dominant. Therefore, New York must dependon resilience to ensure that they develop projects that aresustainable and can withstand adverse calamity in case they arise orthe area risks a permanent catastrophe in the years ahead whenpreventive measures are no longer possible.


McPhearson,Timon, Zoé A. Hamstead, and Peleg Kremer. &quotUrban ecosystemservices for resilience planning and management in New YorkCity.&quot&nbspAmbio&nbsp43.4(2014): 502-515.

Appendix1: New York City Map

Figure1: Map of New York,



Racismin College

Racismrelates to the belief that one type of person, depending on skinpigmentation, is more superior and has better physical andintelligence qualities than the other and, therefore, enjoys the fairtreatment. This essay gives an insight into the subject of racialdiscrimination in colleges it provides two contradicting views inwhich one claims that the United States’ schools still harborsracism while the other insists that the problem is no more in thelearning institutions.

RacismPersists in Colleges

Racismhas been an obstacle in the United States (U.S) colleges for a longtime now, and it involves the discrimination of the Black Americansand the Latinos as well as their overseas peers who joined the statesas international students. Arguably, diverse ethnic groups permeatethe U.S learning institutions resulting in a significant amount oftension characterized by the formation of hate groups that fightagainst each other-whites against blacks and vice verse. Socialisolation based on race is still a real challenge and often, theblacks are denied the opportunity to join their white colleagues onthe football pitch as much as they also face verbal and physicalassaults (Harper, Collin and Horatio 76-77).

Moredisheartening is the fact that prejudice and oppression of the blacksare not limited to their colleagues alone but also the teachers whoare supposed to preach against the abuse. Some trainers directlyconfront the blacks that they are incapable of scoring better gradesand proceed to engage the white learners more than the AfricanAmericans and other international students (Patton et al. 331). Inother words, the oppressive treatment and racial segregation thatexisted during the slavery and post-world War II is still a problemin the U.S education systems and solutions will only be possible ifthe policy makers acknowledge and accept that fact.

RacismNo Longer Exist in Colleges

Duringthe days of slavery and immediately after the Second World War, itwas unlikely to find the whites and the blacks sharing a class due tothe superiority complex held by the former group as well as someteachers and a majority of parents. However, as the U.S plunged intothe late era of the 20th century and the 21st, a more diverse groupof learners comprising many cultures and ethnic backgrounds startedlearning together regardless of their race differences (Harper 27).

Intandem with that, it is arguable that the country has made tremendoussteps in eliminating racism in colleges. Moreover, the pedagogy hasbeen revised, and the current curriculum programs support equalityconcerning training opportunities for the white and blackpopulations classes now encourage open discussions about thedetriments of stereotyping and most of the learners have desistedfrom the act of racial prejudice. In any case, the country is in thepost-racial period that features equality and fairness in collegeeducation the only difference is the color-line, and that isirreversible and must be accepted (Feagin 93-94). If not, howpossible could it have been to vote the first black president?Traditionally, parents induced into their children negative attitudestowards the blacks electing Barack Obama as the U.S president as apresident is a clear indication that the country has solved theproblem of the race!


Fromthe above arguments, it is patent concluded that racism in collegesis still a contentious matter and as much as one is free to oppose orsupport the motion that racial prejudice still exists in the U.S, thebest way to go would be to develop strategies that would maintainequality across human races.


Feagin,Joe R.&nbspRacistAmerica: Roots, current realities, and future reparations.London, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2014. Print.

Harper,Shaun R. &quotRace without racism: How higher education researchersminimize racist institutional norms.&quot&nbspTheReview of Higher Education&nbsp36.1(2012): 9-29.

Harper,Shaun R., Collin, Williams D., and Horatio, Blackman W. &quotBlackmale student-athletes and racial inequities in NCAA Division Icollege sports.&quot&nbspCenterfor the Study of Race &amp Equity in Education&nbsp12.4(2013):73-80.

Patton,Lori D., et al.&nbspStudentdevelopment in college: Theory, research, and practice.New York, U.S: John Wiley &amp Sons, 2016. Print.



ANightmare Day

Ona Monday night, in July 2016, at around 7:30 pm, my friends and Igathered at the usual meeting place-Frank`s apartment in Westgate’sPasadena-and prepared for yet another round of what we often didwhenever we met. For a long time now, Frank and I have been mutualfriends and the fact that we shared a common residence (with ourapartments lying side by side) as much as we shared most of thethings together cemented that relationship. And it wasn’t me aloneJay had joined the group while I walked in personally with mygirlfriend, Luoxin, to keep me company.

Andit was time! We were well set around the table and Frank pushed hisarm under the sofa set’s cushions, extracted, and gave it to Jaywho lit it and what followed was streams of smoke ascending skywards.It was no more surprise everybody seemed to have developed apeculiar predilection to weed (if not addiction) and they couldinhale several puffs without losing physical or mentalstability-Luoxin included, but with my exception because the maximumI could bear was two to three puffs. Although Volkow et al (2224)argued that marijuana use has many adverse health effects, this wasregarded a competition day meant to test the level of professionalismas well as every player’s capacity to smoke weed and the alreadyestablished fact that Luoxin was an expert could only heighten thespirit and urge to consume more of the drug. In any case, there wasnothing much to fear regarding the quantity of the hub as in Frank’sapartment was a roommate who was a veteran smoker and knew where toobtain marijuana as well as the best quality to buy-and he was partof the team!

Sowhen Jay got a signal to light up the first puff of weed via the bongwhich Frank’s roommate availed, the show began and the room filledwith laughter and chats gradually as more puffs were lit and passedaround the table. It didn’t matter why we laughed or what we talkedabout, all we knew was the jubilation the weed induced into us andthat was enough at least for then. Unlike others, I already feltlittle high following the first round as much as I felt dizzy andoblivious of my surrounding but we had a bong which limited thechances of getting choked and provided a better smoking experiencewhich only compelled me to smoke further. Consequently, the firstround came and passed, then the second, the third, and the next andby the time I woke up to thread my way towards my nearby apartment, Ihad had a fair share of the weed overdose.

WhatI loved about it all was my tendency to laugh at every word myfriends uttered and their synonymous reactions created some lifewithin the room yet again, I knew I could see, but could I perceiveand comprehend? Not quite! Fortunately, the memories of that eveningwere well ingrained in my mind, and I live to narrate the whole sceneas it was. An evening that saw Jay and Frank try to get Luoxin asmany puffs as they could while she responded positively by acceptingevery reward from her peers who were then familiar with her expertisewith the drug.

Andas I didn’t want to feel like a looser before everybody, I dancedthe same rhythm of taking several puffs and disregarding the factthat it could prevent me from going home. Coupled with the intenselove I had for Luoxin and the feeling that her colleagues wereoverdosing her, I intervened and decided to consume all the othersuccessive puffs meant for her. By the time I retired from the act, Ihad had about eight to nine puffs and that was way too much for thenormal functioning of the brain I murmured, and when I stood up toleave, the staggers were reminiscent of a drunk man who has justemptied ten bottles of beer down his throat. It was Luoxin whorealized that my state was worrying and reacted by calling off themeeting immediately and dismissing everybody to leave, unfortunatelyon empty stomachs because Frank’s house was not some hotel wheremeals are served to the people enjoying their youth.

Franklived on the second floor, so we had to go down the stairs when in areal sense it was apparent I wasn`t able to walk with the stabilityof a sober man as much as I could not stand readily, but I had toleave. As I traced my way along the three-minute trail to myapartment, I knew that I needed the helping hand of God in Luoxin toget to my destination I staggered along the way which for oncelooked rather unfamiliar and rugged, and I felt like I was traversinga land of sharply inclining valleys. Everything was incrediblyflashing in white and black, and the memories of my friends regularlyand annoyingly asking me if I was OK remained fresh as well as mypretense in assuring them that I was okay. From a distant, I couldfeel they were talking and laughing, but I wasn’t sure I heard orfollowed the conversation and or humor my eyes remained opened andmy body in motion but it seemed I was in a unique world of dream.

Somewherein the middle of our way home, we stopped and amidst murmurs andlaughter-I couldn`t remember what we were talking about-guys wentback home they were equally high and were unlikely to walk me intomy home. After all, it was time for survival of the fittest, andevery individual had to do what they did best to get home but I hadnothing to worry about, there was Luoxin!

Withthe departure of the other friends, a characteristic silence suddenlyenveloped the atmosphere as she walked me slowly to my apartment andthat was the trouble! I realized then that what kept me active allthat while was the noises and laughter of the dismissed colleagueswithout my world turned down, and I grew unconscious of thesurrounding that I couldn`t, to the least, see the road. However, Ikept encouraging and telling myself that I had to be home regardlessalthough that interfaced with the concerns I had for Luoxin whoseemed fine and better off than I was even with the unspoken guilt Ifelt for involving her in smoking she was used to it anyway, Iconsoled myself. However, two girls walking on the street on a nightcan be very dangerous, generally many things could happen, like robs,rapes, kidnaps, or even just a mere violence yet here we werestaggering across the apartment corridors in awe courage.

Inspite of the pretty delusional disorder that bad things may havehappened, I clung on the bravery the weed introduced and treadedalong and ignored the feeling as much as I overlooked the apparentblack holes that modeled along the way. When we left my friend’sthree-floor apartment, it was utopian task walking down and thatconstraint saw me fall from the third stair and nearly crushed myknee tendons. Luoxin came to give me a hand and an inner part of meheard her ask if I was ok she was undeniably troubled and myaffirmations that I sustained no injury only disturbed her more. Itwasn’t time to confirm the accident nevertheless she would behelping me along the street when my body’s center-of-gravity israised, and I depend on her completely for support and stability, shedidn’t deserve heartbreaking news of my sustained injury.

Therewere many such incidences along the street when I needed her to cometo my rescue, and the worst was the first scene when I fell, hit myhead on the ground and fainted momentarily for about a minute as shelater confirmed to me. That might have been a quiet and pleasantmoment for me but not for a lady who was conscious and witnessing hisman stay motionless on the ground and when I finally woke up to hercalling voice, I could read a mark of terror in her face though theimage remained considerably blurred. For once, I was aninternational student, and the imagination of what would havehappened next if the police had found me lying under the influence ofmarijuana was unthinkable to her she was quick to hold me up by thearm and walk me towards my residence.

Whenwe got to the front door, Luoxin asked for the key and opened thedoor, a duty that I could no longer handle due to my incessantlyshaking arms which danced to the tune of the effects of the weed Iconsumed. When the door flew open, she had decided it was not thetime for the staircase accident repeat or the fainting scenario andinsisted we utilize an elevator, so she firmly held my arm, and wewaited. When we finally got in the elevator there were other womenfrom the building, and the thought of her or any other neighborseeing me in this status may have embarrassed me but not when I amnot sober it was Luoxin who suffered a bigger proportion of theembarrassment. In fact, she had to address all the inquiries fromother people packed in the elevator regarding my pale reddened faceor my dusty clothes and her fury about the whole matter manifestedwhen I woke up the following day she yelled and ranted and sworenever to accompany me again.

Whenwe arrived at the fourth floor, I knew I would make it to my room, itdidn’t matter whether I fell or not, I was now at home, and thatwas enough consolation after all it was safe in the apartment thanin the street. When we finally got to my door, I struggled to locatethe key, opened the door and threw myself into the room, caring lessabout the barking dog I value much as my domestic pet under soberconditions. I took my shoes off with the help of Luoxin and quicklywalked to the sofa and sat silently with my mind wondering aboutnothing I didn’t want to talk or to remember anything thatoccurred along the way. Luoxin, worried and sympathetic at the sametime, opened the refrigerator and bought drinks and food and pleadedwith me to have some to feel better I honored her sincere requestand tried some.

Shetold me how scared she was, what I did on the way home and whathappen and I appeared to listen when in the real sense my mind wasasleep and my lips locked to indulge in any conversation. Suddenly Ifelt that the food I had eaten was moving up my throat under theinfluence of negative peristalsis and grabbed the trash can todispose of the mess. Finally, Luoxin received a call from a friendwho was downstairs to pick her up and after confirming that I’d beable to stay alone, she left, and I walked straight into the washroomto erase the feeling of nausea by vomiting. When I turned around andstared in the wall mirror, it was written all over my face the extentof suffering I went through along the way, and I could do no morethan shook my head and walked straight to bed to sleep and forget itall. At least I regained some senses after throwing up and wetting myforehead in cold water, and I bit my lips, regretting why I had toengage in smoking and surpass my threshold for that matter.

Rightunder my blanket, I heard the dog bark constantly and remembered thatI didn’t lock the door although I tried to resist the urge to wakeup, the thought of a stranger, a robber, or an assassin walking intomy room and doing the unthinkable compelled me to react. The nexttime I lifted my head it was a terrible morning characterized bypains all over as well as a headache the only echo I had was notonly to quit smoking but to avoid weed smokers equally. The memoriesof the previous night haunted me as much as they played a significantrole in my decision to cease from taking any drug it was anexperience worth the lessons and I am happy it is changing my way oflife from worse through bad to better.


Volkow,Nora D., et al. &quotAdverse health effects of marijuana use.&quot&nbspNewEngland Journal of Medicine&nbsp370.23(2014): 2219-2227.