Formany years, induced abortions have been the issue of dispute amongvarious societal groups, professions, and individuals (Sumner,Leonard, 90).There a lot of disagreements on whether the law should allow thewomen to conduct abortions or whether it should protect the unbornchild. In case the law allows the women to carry out abortions, thereshould be the clarification of the specific situations to conduct theprocedure (Cornell,70).Those groups fighting against the practices of abortion are thepro-life camp while those indicating that abortion is a personalchoice are a pro-choice camp. Abortion can be described as thetermination of a pregnancy before giving birth through the use ofchemicals or other designs. Abortion may occur in another form wherehormonal imbalances, critical diseases, and abnormalities in thewomen or the embryo may lead to miscarriage (Sumner,Leonard, 87).
Thereare various techniques used to carry out an abortion. The widely usedmethod for a pregnancy that is about three months old or less is theuse of a suction curettage (Sedgh,Gilda, et al. 77).This device is commonly known as vacuum aspiration and involves theremoval of the embryo through sanction. The uterus is then scrappedwith surgical instruments to eliminate any remaining particles andtissues and to keep it clean. A favorite technique is the use of adrug called mifepristone that blocks the production of theprogesterone hormone that prepares the uterus to receive and feed thebaby (Sedgh,Gilda, et al. 79).For a pregnancy that is about six months old, many physicians prefera technique referred to as dilation and evacuation (Sedgh,Gilda, et al. 80).These techniques become more sophisticated with the growth of theembryo.
Abortionis a social vice, and it needs to be viewed as such (WorldHealth Organization, 66).Killing a helpless and harmless child is such an inhuman action.Abortion is a silent crime that denies the world some brilliant mindsthat would have brought many changes and improvements in life. Theconstitution indicates that everyone has a right to life making itwrong to terminate the lives of the unborn on the count of personalproblems or by personal decisions (WorldHealth Organization,79).The religious bodies have stood against this practice stating it ismurder (Sumner,Leonard, 34).Today many options are available for those mothers who feel that theycannot afford to take care of their children due to some issues suchas lack of finances or lack of preparedness (Sumner,Leonard, 107).Many people are ready to adopt the children and give them due carewhile many organizations have come to the rescue of these innocentssuch as children orphanages and children homes (Cornell,75).It would be wrong to think that resulting to an abortion is the onlymethod of dealing with unwanted pregnancies.
However,legal abortion may be advised by the medical practitioners if at allthe mother endangers her health or is at a distinct risk of losingher life (WorldHealth Organization,69).In such a case, abortion would be considered as the most logicalthing to do. Some tragic things happen in life such as killing ahelpless child or abusing a disabled person. These individuals arepowerless and cannot fight off the attacker or even run away. TheUnited Kingdom’s Electric Telegraph written on the second of Augustof the year 1998 stated that: “a discovery among the scientistsconcluded that newborn children are prone to feeling more pain thanthe adults which lasts for a longer period” (Hoffmann,David, 75).The younger a child, the more violent is their reaction to pain.Probably the most overwhelming thing about this pain is the shockexperienced or the feeling that the parents have betrayed infant(Hoffmann,David, 85).It is, therefore, important to protect the wellbeing of the unborn asthey too possess sense and a conscience.
Thismatter can be related to the topic of social change. Variations inthe society such as the modes of behavior and the definition ofconcepts are the determinants of the social morals (WorldHealth Organization,12).The contemporary culture exhibits many changes such that a lot ofaspects considered as vices in the classical periods are now parts ofthe fundamental individual rights (Hoffmann,David, 85).There has been a heightened personal freedom provided by law, and ithas prompted to the respect of individual liberties even if they meanharm to other people (Cornell,88).Many nations have legalized the use of abortion as a birth controlmechanism and as a way of eliminating unwanted pregnancies (Hoffmann,David, 53).
Morethan 30 million abortions are conducted in the globe annually with anestimation of more than seventy thousand cases daily (Sedgh,Gilda, et al. 35).Therefore, as we look forward to a bright future, it is necessary toreduce the number of inoffensive lives lost because of our poorreasoning and due to the lack of consideration for life. Manypotential brains go down the drain and with them all thepossibilities and knowledge. Once an individual makes a decision toconduct an abortion a lot is lost that is of incredible value (Sedgh,Gilda, et al. 40).The women face imminent risks of their health when they attend thesepractices. They even risk losing their reproductive health if at allthe procedures are conducted in an unprofessional manner.
Increasedcases of abortions have marked the recent few years. What might bethe reasons behind this trend?
Accordingto WorldHealth Organization (132-188),it is estimated that the number of induced abortion cases across theworld stood at 56 million annuallysincethe year 2010-2014. It represented a significant increase of thecases since the period of 1990-1994. The rise may have been as aresult of population growth where larger scores of people needed theprocedure. Therefore as more people are born and grow up, the numberof users of services increases tremendously. In the period of2010-2014, the global estimation rate of abortion for the women agedbetween 15-44 years was 3.5%, which was a slight decline from thefigures recorded in the period of 1990-1994 of 4%.
Accordingto Sumner,Leonard (77-98), statisticsindicate that women in the developing countries are more likely tocarry out an abortion than those residing the developed nations.There is a likelihood of 3.7% of abortions to occur among the womenin the undeveloped countries to a 2.7% for those living in thedeveloped regions. The rate of economic development in an area is afactor that may be related to the cases of abortions being carriedout. According to Hoffmann,David (73),the women in the less developed countries feel that it may be a hardtask to take care of their children in times of economic hardships,and they decide to eliminate the burden. On the other hand, thosewomen residing in the developed regions may choose to conduct anabortion if the pregnancy threatens their health or if at all havinga baby is detrimental to their plans.
Manywomen in these regions tend to prefer having children at theiradvanced ages, and they use their time while young to advance theirlife and develop their careers (Hoffmann,David, 53).Between the periods of 1990-2014, the rate of abortion in thedeveloped nations dropped by 1.9% while no changes were recorded inthe developing regions (Sumner,Leonard, 80).Currentstudies indicate a drop in the number of abortions from twelvemillion to seven million in the developed countries over a period offifteen years and a rise from thirty-nine to fifty million in thedeveloping nations over the same period (Sumner,Leonard, 83).
Theoreticalframework: structural functionalism theory
Thisapproach views the society as a human body which is comprised ofseveral parts that make it whole (Craib,21).This framework considers these elements of the body as having variousdistinct roles which when combined make the body what it is (Craib,26).Functionalism can be applied to understand the concepts of abortionwhere many individuals play a part in the matter. The societal moralsare what guides and restrict the individuals’ thinking anddecisions. Carrying out an abortion is not a resolution that can bemade by a single person (Craib,41).Many society members have a role to play in implementing thedecision. The part played may either be direct or indirect (Craib,56).The pregnant woman consults with the various members of the familyand the society who help her to arrive at and approve the decision.For instance, the father may disapprove of the pregnancy andencourage the lady to carry out an abortion while threatening theirrelationship. In despair, the woman is forced to end the child’slife and save their relationship.
Thelaw plays a significant role in facilitating the practice byspecifying some legal situations to carry out the abortion, and thusthe lady would feel legally competent to carry out such a heinousaction (Hoffmann,David, 73).If the society fails to support the pregnant women with moralguidance and by giving them hope, then the ladies would result tocarry out an abortion and terminate her predicaments due tohopelessness. Here the society members would have played an indirectrole in the decision made as they did not assist where they shouldhave.
Thehealth institutions that carry out the abortion procedures are theultimate facilitators of the process. They complete the process byavailing the services to the women and conducting the procedurewithout giving it a second thought (Hoffmann,David, 60).All these groups and individuals are responsible for the prevalenceof abortion practices in the society through the roles they playeither knowingly or unknowingly (WorldHealth Organization, 33).This theoretical framework provides us with a fundamental techniqueof analyzing the whole abortion process and the various decisionmechanisms used to arrive at the decision.
Theprimary source of information for my study was the use of secondarydata. I compared numerous research studies to analyze the trends ofabortion over a time series. Existing sources are an efficient datacollection technique as they are readily available from varioussources such as the web and the local libraries (Sumner,Leonard,76).This tool reduces the wastage of time in conducting new studies. Iobtained a broad range of information from various types ofinvestigations that helped to increase my knowledge on the topic. Thetool was feasible with the research hence I had an easy timeconducting my analysis. I assessed as many studies as possible whileconsidering the timeframe and the hypothesis. I needed to prove thatthere have been increases in the cases of abortion over the past fewyears. I studied those works conducted from the year 1990 up to thepresent. I then compared the data that I obtained from these studies,and it was in harmony with my hypothesis.
Forthe research, I preferred to use those studies that conducted testson the reliability and validity of their data collection methods. Toenhance the accuracy of data, I searched for the studies that had thesame research objective but used different data gathering andanalysis tools. I preferred those studies that used enough samplesbecause large samples reduce the possibility of arriving at biasedfindings as the operations are repeated over and over (Cornell,23).According to Sumner,Leonard (88), therepresentation of the results of the research is crucial tounderstanding the relevance as well as the conclusions of the study.The use of adequate data representation techniques such as the use oftables would assist to clarify the research findings more.
Allthe reviews indicated that there was a general increase in the ratesof abortion over the past decade or so. Several reasons were proposedas explanations for this trend.Sedgh, Gilda, et al. (547)indicated that the general increase in the population is a favorableexplanation for this pattern rather than just morals or any otherfactor. According to WorldHealth Organization (98),the economic prosperity of a country is linked to the cases ofabortions recorded in the area. The tougher the economic conditionsof a nation are, the more the rates of abortion. Cornell(32),indicates that the reduction in morals of the society as well asmodernization and technology are the primary reasons for the rise inabortion rates over the past few years.
Craib,Ian. Modernsocial theory.Routledge, 2015.
Cornell,Drucilla. Theimaginary domain: abortion, pornography, and sexual harrassment. Routledge, 2016.
Hoffmann,David L. CultivatingThe Masses.Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2011. Print.
Sedgh,Gilda, et al. "Induced abortion: incidence and trends worldwidefrom 1995 to 2008." The Lancet 379.9816(2012): 625-632.
Sumner,Leonard Wayne. Abortionand moral theory.Princeton University Press, 2014.
WorldHealth Organization. Safeabortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems. WHO, 2012.