Prevention of Overuse Sports Related Injuries in Pediatrics, Pender’s


Preventionof Overuse Sports Related Injuries in Pediatrics, Pender’s HealthPromotion Model

Preventionof Overuse Sports Related Injuries in Pediatrics, Pender’s HealthPromotion Model


RegardingPender’s health promotion model, Alligood(2014)argued that every individual has distinctive personal character andexperience that have the capacity to influence ensuing actions andthe assemblage of variables especially for the knowledge that isspecific to a certain behavior and that has effects with vitalmotivational significance. Similarly, it is suggested that suchvarying conditions can be tailored through the actions of nursingwhile performances that promote health are the actual outcomes ofbehavior which forms the termination point in the health promotionmodel. There are certain results that must be realized at the end ofhealth promoting behaviors such as the improved status of wellbeing,superior functional capability and better quality of life of apatient at every development level (Alligood,2014).As illustrated in the Pender’s health promotion model, thebehavioral demand that comes last is controlled by the instantaneousrivaling forces of demand and preferences that can disrupt aprojected health promoting actions.

Thereare major concepts that define Pender’s health promotion model, forinstance, health promotion can be considered as behavior which isaggravated by the desires to enhance health status as well asactualizing the potential of the well-being of human technique tendsto target the wellness. Similarly, another significant concept isknown as the health protection, or sometimes it can be referred asthe illness prevention, and it refers to that behavior that istriggered to actively avoid illness, early detection or continue withnormal functioning despite the illness. Moreover, there is a conceptcalled behaviour-specific cognition and effect that constitutesnumerous elements such as the perceived benefits of actions,interpersonal influence, situational influence, activity-relatedaffect, perceived self-efficacy and perceived barrier to actions. Thefinal concept is referred to as behavioral outcomes that comprisehealth-promoting behavior, loyalty to an elaborate action plan, and adirect rivaling demand and preference (Alligood,2014).

Thereare some other sub-concepts that can help to show a relationship thatexists in the prevention of overuse sports related injuries inpediatrics such as personal factors that have three types of its own:biological, psychological and socio-cultural. Therefore, those threeelements mentioned within personal factors can help to predict aspecified action as dictated by the quality of the prevailing targetbehavior under scrutiny (Alligood,2014).Three elements are also characterized differently, for instance,personal biological is comprised of aerobic capacity, strengthsagility, balance, age, gender, body mass index and pubertal status.Similarly, personal psychological factors are formed by variablessuch as the category of health issue in question alongside theperceived health status, personal competence, self-esteem, andself-motivation. Finally, the last element is known as personalsocio-cultural factors that are comprised of the following variablessuch as socioeconomic status, education, race, ethnicity, andacculturation (Alligood,2014).

Additionally,there are certain behaviors that one should anticipate for whenpromoting health such as perceived benefits of actions where there isneed to look forward to positive outcomes that can come as a resultof health behavior. When actions are taken to promote better health,there are unknown events that can act as a barrier and ways should beformulated to prevent them from occurring through the concept ofperceived barriers to actions (Alligood,2014).

Healthpromotion is also affected by a principle known as perceivedself-efficacy, a concept that involves the judgment of personalcapability which relates to organizing and executing a healthpromoting behavior. Similarly, there are several activities that comehand in hand when promoting health, and they are known as activityrelated effect, and it is important to comprehend feelings, eithernegative or positive, that happened before, amid and after behaviorbased on the stimulus properties concerning the behavior in place. Asmentioned early, perceived self-efficacy can be influenced byactivity-related effect, and it implies that when the subjectivefeeling is more positive, then there is a high probability ofefficacy. Similarly, the outcome results depend on the relationshipbetween the two elements, for example, when there are increasedfeelings of efficacy it results in increased positive feelings(Alligood,2014).

Anothersub-concept that can be implemented during health promotion issituational influences, for example, there are cognitions or personalsituations that facilitate or impede behavior. Such perceptioninclude options available, aesthetic features (an environment wherehealth promotion should take place) and demand characteristics it issuggested that situational influences can either have direct orindirect impacts on the nature of health behavior and it requirescareful consideration when promoting health especially duringprevention of overuse sports related injuries in pediatrics.Committing to the plan of action is significant when promoting healthsince the concept of identification and intention of an organizedstrategy can lead to the implementation of health behavior in amanner that would ensure satisfaction for both the client and thepractitioner. Finally, there is the concept of instantaneous rivalingdemands and preferences in which the former is perceived as analternative behavior that a human has limited control over since theyconstitute vital environments such as work or family careresponsibility. On the other hand, competing preferences form part ofalternative behaviors, and the person has total control over themsuch choice of specific food to take for snacks such as ice cream orapple (Alligood,2014).


Accordingto Theisen et al (2014), there are several prevention initiativesthat can be employed to manage sports injuries and some of thestrategies require that some rules be modified such as introducingthe use of protective equipment’s, for instance, helmets incycling. The suggested approach provides some protection irrespectivewhether there is cooperation from the athlete but they are forced tocomply with regulations. Similarly, there is active prevention thataims physical characteristics to decreasing injury, enforcing achange of attitude, modified risk factor and intrinsic. As a result,there is a certain universal prevention program that can be used foroveruse injuries such as “11+” that was developed by F-MARC (FIFAMedical Assessment and Research Center). According to DiFiori (2010),a majority of overuse injuries can be prevented though there islittle literature that provides data to guide prevention and someproposed ways that can be implemented to prevent overuse injuries arediscussed below:

HavingPre-Participation Exams

Byemploying that technique, it can be possible to reveal the initialinjury trends, and that can provide an opportunity to do anestimation of the intellectual and physical maturation as well asmotivation (DiFiori, 2010).

EnhancingParental and Supervision through Coaching

Thereshould be a close collaboration between sports organizations andparents so that they can support the existing workshops and equipcoaches with essential training programs related to overuse injuriesthat are prevalent in their sports and mechanisms that can beutilized to avoid them in the future. Additionally, local physicianscan be integrated and requested to help implement the initiative andchildren should be prevented from playing while having pain orinjuries (DiFiori, 2010).

RecognizingSport Readiness

Thereare certain skills that coaches and parents should acquire to enablethem to understand cognitive development in minor children and how ithas and influence the sports participation. There are three elementsthat should be geared towards that aspect, and they includeexpectation and instruction and physical development (DiFiori, 2010).


Dueto advancement in technology in every sector of the economy, it issignificant for sporting institutions and parents to identify thetype of equipment that is appropriately for games and fits accuratelyfor every age set. For instance, when there are worn or poorly-fittedgadgets within the sporting field it is advisable that they should bereplaced or discarded for use (DiFiori, 2010).

AvoidingTraining Errors

Thereare aims that every training season should be looking forward toachieving, for example, it must concentrate on the overall fitnessand as well as skills attainment. Similarly, as consistency is a keyingredient to skill acquisition, training sessions should not beoverly extended. There is a general guide known as 10% rule whichdirects coaches to reduce escalation in training speed, rigor, aswell as total time to 10% and below on a weekly basis as that is theonly way to prevent overuse sport related injuries (DiFiori, 2010).

DelayedSingle-Sport Specialization

Thosewho are involved in sports and parents are being advised to ensurethat they encourage sports diversification during early stages ofdevelopment when children are allowed to experiment differentactivities that provide then with an opportunity to ground skills andinterest which ultimately play pivotal roles in preventing burnout.According to information documented in America Academy of Pediatrics,they are discouraging sports specialization at a very tender age(DiFiori, 2010).


Pender’shealth promotion model is very comprehensive, and it contains finerelements that help people to understand how to promote healthespecially preventing overuse injuries in pediatrics.


Alligood,M. R. (2014).&nbspNursingtheorists and their work.New York, United States: Elsevier Health Sciences.

DiFiori,J. P. (2010). Evaluation of overuse injuries in children andadolescents. Currentsports medicine reports,9(6),372-378.

Theisen,D., Malisoux, L., Seil, R., &amp Urhausen, A. (2014). injuries inyouth sports: epidemiology, risk factors and prevention. DeutscheZeitschrift für sportmeDiZin,65(9).