Plastic Surgery 9



Thenumber of cosmetic surgery is increasing each day and so is plasticsurgery. People tend to think that they are socially accepted notbecause of their character but because of their physical appearance.This paper highlights all the health complications that come alongwith plastic surgery. Also, this paper examines the external factorsthat have affected the cosmetic industry. These factors includepolitical, economic, social and technological factors. Consideringthe effects of plastic surgery, there is a need to eliminate theseprocedures since they may affect the future. The type of leadershiprequired to eliminate plastic surgery has also been addressed in thepaper. People need to appreciate themselves and save the high costof surgery and instead put them to better use such as healthy diets.Since plastic surgery works for the current generation, it does notmean that it will work for the coming generations.

Tableof contents

  1. Introduction–4

  2. Trend -4

  3. Health implications of plastic surgery —4

  4. PEST analysis –5

    1. Political analysis —5

    2. The Keogh Review and regulatory reform-6

    3. Economic factors –6

    4. Social factors —7

    5. Impact of the media and ethical issues–7

    6. Technological factors -7

  5. Literature review 8

  6. -8

  7. Recommendations –9

Cosmeticindustry (plastic surgery)


Sincethe twentieth century, cosmetics production has been controlled bymany multinational corporations. Global cosmetics industry iscategorized into six main groups and skin care is the largest of themall accounting for 35.3% of the international market in 2014. Eachyear, cosmetic industry especially the plastic surgery makes bettermillions of people who have deformities such as cleft palate andcleft lip, animal bites, disfiguring wounds, and burn injuries. Alsothose who need reconstruction after a particular surgery for chronicconditions such as malignancy have also been made better throughplastic, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery (Sarwer,2013).According to Antkowiak and Rudolph (2016) the number of cosmeticprocedures being performed has been increasing over the years withplastic surgery among the top procedures. However, this does not meanthat the same procedures will apply for the next generations. Withthe changing lifestyles, the plastic surgery might be a danger to thecoming generation. The future generation needs different proceduresto come with the changing lifestyles.


Thenumber of cosmetic procedures increases each and every day. Sarwer,(2013) states that therewere 10.2 million procedures performed in the United States, whichwas an increase of 11% compared to 2004 and a 38% increases ascompared to 2000. This number includes 837711 microdermabrasioncases, 782,732 laser hair removals, 589768 vein sclera therapies,323, 605 liposuctions, and 1,033,582 chemical peels. Mostly femalesare involved in cosmetic surgeries, and mostly the whites. Liposuction, breast augmentation, eyelid surgery, nose reshaping andtummy tuck were the leading top five surgical procedures in 2015.This makes plastic surgery the most common procedure in the cosmeticindustry (Paiket al 2015). With the increasing number of plastic surgery, Scottet al (2015) predicted that by 2020, the number will rise by 10 %.People long to change their appearances to be accepted in thesociety. The young people below 20 years have gained a mentality thatindividuals are getting recognized not because of their character butbecause of their physical appearance. The world should be made betterfor the coming generation. If cosmetic surgery continues it mayendanger the population of the next generation because the death ratemay be high due to the numerous complications. Global CosmeticsSurgery and Services Market Analysis 2015-2019 is the latest analysison the vertically growing market. Currently the industry worthover$20 billion and by 2019, it is set to rise to over $ 27 billion(Górnaśet al 2013). 3.0Health implications of plastic surgery Plasticsurgery comes along with many risks just like any other surgery. Somepeople even die from plastic surgery due to complications. Some ofthe common risks associated with plastic surgery include severebleeding, damage to nerves and infections. Deep vein thrombosis andblood clots are also possible complications that are associated withplastic surgery. The expectations of the patients may also differwith the results. Sometimes the patients get frustrated with theresults to the point of developing other complications such asdepressions or even attempting suicide (JildenstålETal2014).The costs of surgery are very high. According to the American Societyof Plastic Surgeons (Kling et al 2013)cosmetic surgery has become abooming business with $10.1 billion business each year with plasticsurgery being the leader. The Society reports that 91% of the womenwho undergo plastic surgery decide to have the quick fixes more thanever. Hence, in 2010 there was a 5% increase in plastic surgery ascompared to 2009. The results of plastic surgery differ from oneperson to another. People should put the money used in plasticsurgery to better use. Again changing the physical appearance ofoneself is also not right since people were created according to theimage of God. However, issues such as plastic surgery due toaccidents should be overlooked. Otherwise, it would be nice if peopleappreciate themselves the way they are. To eliminateplastic surgery, and all the effects, there is a need for leadershipthat cares for the future generation. The leadership should befocused on saving the future generation through helping peopleappreciate themselves. The leadership should be ready to explain tothe people the need to stop plastic surgery. For the people to getconvinced entirely, they should understand the present scenario andbe ready for the change. They should understand the reason why theyshould save the plastic surgery cost and use the money in otheruseful businesses such as eating healthy food and having exercises. To get rid of this problem, it would be good to listen to thepatients who opt for plastic surgery without medical reasons. Throughlistening, will understand why they opt for the process. From therethe leader will know how to influence the change. Secondly, theleader should come up with good ideas that will convince the peopleto accept change. Also, the leader should develop a rapport with thekey people within all the boundaries through understanding what isimportant to them. In this case, other than explaining to thepatients the need to eliminate plastic surgery, he should also dealwith the industry as whole so that they understand why they shouldvalue the life of human. They should understand that plastic surgeryshould be done for only medical purposes.

4.0PEST ANALYSIS 4.1 Political Analysis Davis(2013) states that PolyImplant Prothèse, a French company that manufactured breastimplants, was found to have produced hundreds of thousands ofproducts using cheap industrial silicone, which was very prone tofailure, and subsequently went into liquidation in 2011. The problembecame publicized in Britain in 2012 and has had a notable impact onthe market. The popularity of breast implants, the most commonsurgical procedure, has been reduced, with a dramatic downturn inprocedures in 2014 (Althubaitet al 2013).The year before did see a significant rise in the number of breastprocedures in keeping with the previous growth trend, however theBritish Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (BAAPS) believesthis figure was inflated by the 30-40,000 women with PIP implantsrequiring replacement or removal procedures. Subsequent consequenceshave included a major Department of Health review of the industry andthe aforementioned dramatic reversal in the market in 2014, with a 9%decrease in surgical procedures (including a 23% decrease in breastaugmentation) and a slowdown in the larger non-surgical proceduresector. The PIP scandal has led to a much greater demand from boththe public and politicians for regulation of the market.

4.2TheKeogh Review and Regulatory Reform Followingthe PIP scandal, the Department of Health commissioned the KeoghReview in 2013 to investigate the causes of the problems. The reviewconcluded that the entire industry was poorly regulated and requiredreform, findings that were welcomed by BAAPS, the government and theindustry. It heavily criticized the availability of non-surgicaltreatments including dermal fillers, with as little regulation astoothbrushes, and concluded that laws had not kept pace with industrygrowth, especially as the largest and fastest growing sector(temporary non-surgical procedures) was the least regulated. Itsrecommendations were wide sweeping and included a proper system ofmedical qualification for all practitioners covering any proceduresthey might carry out, making the very popular dermal fillersavailable by prescription only, and the appointment of a newregulatory body. The coalition government of the time accepted thereport`s findings and has since announced plans for furtherregulation, which started in October 2013 with mandatory insurancecoverage for practitioners (Klassenet al 2016). Giventhe slump that followed in 2014 it is evident that the Keogh Reviewdid not have a positive impact on the health of the market, which hadbeen booming previously, though the PIP scandal itself was likely abigger factor. The main implication of the review on the market willbe that it will prompt regulatory reform which should help theindustry regain the trust of consumers without compromisingprofitability. The biggest challenges in the future will likely beenforcement of reforms, and the international nature of the industrywhich makes unilateral regulation difficult, though Britain isalready less regulated in this market than most of the European Union(Gurunluogluet al 2013).Another challenge may be demands for even further reform of thecosmetics sector as a whole, such as recommendations by the CharteredInstitute of Environmental Health calling for a similar level ofregulation for body piercings and tattoos. Companies in the marketwill also have to be prepared to continue legal proceedings tocompensate victims of procedures gone wrong (Antielet al. 2013). 4.3Economic Factors Theresistance of this market to the recession is well documented itgrew continuously between 2008 and 2013 despite the economic crisis,and was projected to increase in size from £2.3bn to £3.6bn between2010 and 2015. However it is worth noting that the sector grewcontinuously before the recession as well and that some see thepost-recession growth as moderate. While it is not yet fully apparenthow the industry remained quite so robust throughout the recession,the impact of the economic recovery on the industry was visible in2013 but has been stunted by the problems in the industry asillustrated above by 2014. Fall the economy affected the industrysince the number of procedure lowered (Hartet al. 2013)4.4Social Factors The three primary demographic changes that affect the world`s plasticsurgery market are in the categorizations of gender, age, and weight.Heyes(2016) states that Genderis already an essential element as 90% of procedures in the world ofall kinds are done on female customers, meaning that changes in themarket relevant to women will have a greater effect than thoseapplicable to men. The fallout of PIP is a good example of this as itaffected the most popular surgical treatment for women. Women willremain the majority for the foreseeable future however there isclearly untapped potential for future growth in the male population,with the amount of male consumers growing rapidly. Male consumers arebecoming particularly interested in anti-ageing and anti-hair lossproducts. The most important ongoing demographic factor is age, asthe UK population continues to age rapidly. When combined with thedesires of consumers and cultural attitudes, the portion of thepopulation seeking treatment to combat the effects of ageing willonly continue to rise. It is also possible that the key agedemographic in the market may be shifting upwards from women in theirearly 20’s to both genders between the ages of 25 and 34 (Mandallet al 2016). Consumers concerns are increasingly important in light ofrecent events. Consumers are becoming more skeptical of thereliability of the industry due to the fear of bad surgeons, withrecent studies showing the most important concerns when selecting apractitioner to be the practitioner’s reputation, certification,and ensuring any product failures will not be permanent. This hasbeen amplified by increasing awareness of the risks of treatmentsgoing wrong such as infections, scars and nerve damage, despiteestimates of the number of problems being reported being as lower asbeneath 20%. One impact on the market this has had is to makeconsumers much more cautious about receiving treatments that areeasily visible to others, in case they go wrong – such as nosejobs, tummy tucks and breast augmentation, the most severely affectedproducts during the 2014 dip in the market (Groenet al 2016). 4.5Impact of the media and ethical issues Thesefactors, due to the role of the media in public debate about ethicalissues surrounding cosmetic surgery, are deeply interconnected. Mediacoverage helped encourage the sales boom in the market after therecession and popular media continues to lend publicity to theindustry. However increasing media focus on cultural attitudespromoting cosmetic surgery that may be harmful has had an adverseimpact on consumer perceptions of the industry. Equally problematichas been the media`s focus on alleged complicity on the part of thesector, which was given impetus by the PIP scandal and the KeoghReview, whose convener called the industry &quotdistasteful&quotfor alleged profiteering through unregulated practices. The media hasalso brought further attention to ethical issues raised by academicresearch which has increasingly suggested that consumers of cosmeticinterventions are statistically more likely to have been victims ofabuse and mental health problems such as body dysmorphic disorder.These issues have gained more traction in recent years and will needto be addressed by the market at some point (Vardanianet al 2013). 4.6Technological factors Accordingto Christensenetal (2013) technologically advanced and cheap, minimally invasivetreatments suit consumer desires for affordable cosmetics anddiscretion, but they also happen to correspond well to problems inthe 21st century that will lead to further demand for cosmeticsurgery. These include the effects of overexposure to the sun, baddiet and nutrition, an ageing population and sedentary lifestylechoices. Laser treatments have only recently become mainstream andare now one of the most popular growing areas of the market. Thedevelopment of further new technology, and just as importantly thedevelopment of cheaper versions of existing technology, will becrucial to the market’s future. That will only apply to the peoplewho need surgery for medical purposes.

5.0LiteratureReview Accordingto Bordo (1995), individuals have taken the initiative to controltheir bodies so that they look according to what pleases them.Physical attractiveness has won the mind of people, and that hasaffected the life outcomes and the perception of individuals byothers. Different people have different justifications as to why theyundergo plastic surgery. The women fat women claim that they areconsidered lazy, and therefore they opt for the surgery so as to bemore active. Others argue that they want to get a particular size andshape since with that they can socialize with people and theirself-esteem rises. The men argue that they want to be more masculineand that it helps boost their ego (Eagly et al., 1991 Jackson etal., 1995 Mulford et al., 1998). According to Barry L. Friedberg,M.D who is a specialist in cosmetic surgery anesthesia, manyunnecessary risks come along with general anesthetic. The risks arefatal especially to the patient who chooses to have plastic surgeriesthat are of no medical reasons or indications. He says that suchrisks include blood clots forming in the lungs hence lack of oxygenin the brain of the patient (postoperative nausea and vomiting(PONV), postoperative cognitive disorder (POCD). There is apossibility of avoiding all these risks through the doctors choosinga different anesthetic technique. According to New York Times’recent article, the unlicensed plastic surgeons that include thedoctors who are trained from the other countries attract morepatients since they charge a low fee (Sasaki,2015). (Halouaet al 2013 states that, Hematoma is a common side effect of plasticsurgery. It is a risk in almost all the surgeries and sometimesadditional operations to drain the blood are included in thetreatment. Plastic surgery may also cause numbness and tingling afterthe procedure. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are also acommon effect of plastic surgery. Deep vein thrombosis is where thereoccurs formation of blood clots in the deep vein. If the clot movesto the lungs, the condition is known as pulmonary embolism. Thoughthis condition is not very common, it is fatal. Other than thosecomplications, conditions such as scarring, sarcoma anesthesiacomplications, and damage of organs are experienced. Considering allthese circumstances, plastic surgery needs to be replaced in thefuture. Today`s generations have weak immune systems due to thechanges in feeding styles (Fischer,et al 2013)The immune system will not handle the side effects of plastic surgeryin the future since it is growing weaker each day. Men undergoplastic surgery to boost their masculinity. However, it isinteresting that most men do discourage their colleagues fromundergoing the same since they feel it feminizing (Christensenet al 2013).Thereis a need for change in the cosmetic industry. People have becomeslaves of plastic surgery, and that continues to ruin their lives.

6.0Summary Thehealth problems that come along with plastic surgery create fearamong the patient. Scarring, deep vein thrombosis, infections, andthe rest have become common among the patients. Some patients die dueto complications, and others have to take medicine throughout theirlife so that the surgery is compatible with their bodies. However,that may cause diseases such as cancers that are incurable. There arealso political, economic, social and technological effects that areaffecting the cosmetic industry where plastic surgery is included.These factors are discouraging most of the patients. The high costsof plastic surgery are also part of the economic factors since thepatients opt for cheaper options. For instance, the New York Timesproduced an article that reported that the untrained plastic surgeonsattract more patients since their charges are low as compared to thetrained plastic surgeons. This increases the risk of complicationsafter the surgeries.



Health complications

Scarring, deep vein thrombosis, infections, severe bleeding, hematoma.

Political analysis.

Use of cheap industrial silicone by Poly Implant Prostheses, a French company has contributed to the political demand for plastic surgery.

Economic analysis

High costs spent on plastic surgeries can be exhausted on other better uses such as healthy eating habits. During the economic recession, the number of plastic procedures fell.

Social analysis

The cultural attitudes and low self-esteem after the procedures discourage the surgeries. Unexpected outcomes also discourage the surgeries.

Technology analysis

New technologies in plastic surgery have come up, but there is a need for a cheaper version of the existing technologies to help those who need plastic surgeries due to medical purposes.

Listening to the front line people

First, the clients should be given a chance to speak. They should explain why they opt for plastic surgery. From there the leader can know where to start in improvising the change.

Playing the change politics

The leader comes up with new ideas that will help in convincing the clients on the need of change

Knowing the priorities of the industry.

The leaders should concentrate on the patients and the industry at large.


Savingthe future generation is the main initiative in banning plasticsurgery especially those that are not for medical purposes. Insteadof improving the quality of life, plastic surgery is diminishing it.There is a need to consider the future generation. Most of the peopleundergoing plastic surgery are the younger population, and they arethe most fertile. The future may only consist of the children andseniors if plastic surgery continues. Also, there may be thedevelopment of complications that can be genetically transferred tothe unborn. This may be because the plastic surgery involvescompatibility of the body and the organ being transplanted. Thefinances being spent on this surgery can be put into other importantuses such as eating healthy foods and having exercise. One may spenda lot of money only to end up frustrated with the results loweringself-esteem. It is important to appreciate ourselves and the otherpeople the way they are. There is a need for the health centers tocreate awareness on the harmful impacts of plastic surgery. Plasticsurgery should only be recommended in cases of medical situations andshould be performed by the trained cosmetic surgery professionalsonly. I can manage to convince all the involved stakeholders ofplastic surgery on the effects of the process. The best way toaddress the clients is through campaigns and advertisement. Thegovernment should also employ only those who are qualified to performthe procedures. The weakness can be the source of finances sincecampaigning against plastic surgery is expensive. As a leader, Ihave the ability to convince people. I achieve this by explaining thereal truth and emphasizing the importance of the change. I am also agood listener, and I give my followers a chance to speak out theirthoughts. Through this, I get to know what they are for and what theyare against. I can then decide the direction from which I handle theissue. I am polite while communicating to the people. I, therefore,gain respect that help in resolving trust issues hence the people canlisten to me.


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