Jungwas a psychiatrist from Switzerland whose main interest waspsychoanalysis. He researched about Personality, the human psyche anddreams. This paper explains Jung’s personality theory whichdistinguishes between two opposing attitudes extroverts andintroverts. Introverted people derive stimulation from insidewhereas extroverts obtain stimulation from their surroundings (Jung,2003). The theory also groups the two attitudes into four subtypesaccording to the functions that control their perception of theworld. Both extroverts and introverts can fall into the four subtypesmaking a total of eight probable categories of personalities. Thefour functions are as follows:
Itis the application of reasoning to every encounter and situation. Thefunction is contingent on logic and cautious mental action.Extroverted thinkers understand the world through a mixture ofconcrete and abstract ideas. The abstract concepts are passed fromothers. Introverted thinkers form interpretations by understandingand internal knowledge.
Theapplication of subjective assessment to the environments andsituations encountered. Extroverts base their feelings on objectivefacts. In most cases their opinions form based on majority beliefsand accepted values. Introverts judge based on beliefs establishedinternally.
Theapplication of aesthetic value to one’s surroundings andsituations. Extroverted perceptions are not colored by anypreexistent principles. Introverts interpret and try to make sense oftheir environs through internal reflection. They rarely see thingsfor what they are alone.
Itis the use of one’s subconscious or the mystical self forcomprehension of experiences. Extroverts prefer figuring out thingsthrough subliminally apparent impartial fact instead of incomingsensory gen. introverted people have their intuitive selvesinfluenced profoundly by internal inspirations even when they don’tfully understand them.
Gardner’stheory of multiple intelligences
Itposits that there are different ways through which individualsunderstand in the world. Gardner expressed the criteria used toconsider a behavior an intelligence (McKenzie, 2010). The followingintelligences were shown: place in evolutionary history, probableisolation of the brain due to brain damage, symbolic expression,existence of fundamental operations, presence of savants, distinctivedevelopmental advancement, exceptional people and prodigies, andbacking from experimental psychometric outcomes and experimentalpsychology.
Theeight abilities selected by Gardner intended to meet the criteriawere: rhythmic, linguistic, visual, logical, kinesthetic,intrapersonal, interpersonal and naturalistic. Later on herecommended moral and existential intelligence be included. Gardnerupholds that the theory should be used to empower learners ratherthan restricting them to one learning modality (Gillman & Lynn,2012). His theory supports the idea of one dominant intelligence typein learners hence correlating with the g-factor.
Identifyingstrengths using the theories
Consideringthe theories and using Jung typology test (Stricker & Ross, 2013)I identified my top three strengths as being empathetic, an introvertwho is more reflective than verbal, and a great communicator. Theother participants were family friends. One of them turned out to becaring, well organized and empathetic whereas the other one hasexcellent time management skills, she is also a rational thinker andcaring.
Comparingmy strengths to the strengths of the other two participants, Irealized that we were different despite being close. My empathetictrait matched one of my friends’ but we were different in the sensethat I my degree of organization and care ware lower than hers hencecould not be counted as strengths. Her on the other side she couldnot match my strengths of reflectiveness and communication. My otherfriend doesn’t share any strengths with me but our thinkingfunctions are almost the same. She is caring just like the otherparticipant in addition to being good at managing her time.
Knowingand understanding the similarities and differences of the twoparticipants is important to me because they are close to my familyand to me so dealing with them given various situations will beeasier. The psychology of understanding personality is obligingbecause by that it will be easier to discern the means by which tocommunicate with them, support them, make decisions around them andsolving any conflicts that might rise hence strengthening the alreadyexisting bond.
Knowingthat we have different personalities will help shape expectations ofthe friendships. Understanding the high level of organizationdisplayed by one of them, I will not judge them when they try toimpart organization into me because it will be for a good course andit is normal to adapt the trait. I will learn not to abuse the caringaspect of my friends as much as I’m sure they’ll always careabout me more than I care about them. Being a good conversationalistand empathetic, communication will be improved between us making usbetter friends.
Assessingthe personalities helps deepen the connection between friends becauseI can comprehend what I contribute to the friendship and what to lookfor from my friends. This creates a flow in the partnership in placeof usual frustrating and competitive interactions many friendshipsendure. Knowing my personality also offers insight as to when I’mnot acting in the scope of my nature and why. In great friendships,there’s movement in and out of each personality type depending onmood, situation, and interactions.
Jung,C. G. (2003). Psychological types. (Collected works of C. G. Jung,volume 6, Chapter X).
Stricker,L. J. & Ross, J. (2013). An Assessment of Some StructuralProperties of the Jungian Personality Typology. Journal of Abnormaland Social Psychology, vol. 68, pp. 67-72.
Gillman& Lynn, (2012). “The theory of multiple intelligences”.Indiana University. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
McKenzie,W. (2010). Multiple Intelligences and Instructional Technology. ISBN156484188X.