Pathophysiology of Pneumonia

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PNEUMONIA 4

Pathophysiologyof Pneumonia

Subject

Pathophysiologyof Pneumonia

Pathophysiologyis the study of the progressive changes that take place in anindividual from the time of infection by a particular disorder. Justlike other diseases, pneumonia also undergoes changes (Hua, L.,Hilliard, J. J., Shi, Y., Tkaczyk, C., Cheng, L. I., Yu, X., &ampKeller, A.,2014). Therefore, this research has tackled thepathophysiology of pneumonia in detail in proceeding paragraphs.

Pneumoniais a lung disorder that arises due to interruption of the air sacs bypathogens. Bacteria, viruses, and other chemical substances tend toenhance air spaces in the lungs to get filled with fluid content,thus resulting in difficulty in breathing and coughing that isaccompanied with pus (Hilliard.,2014). Despite this, other symptomsof this infection may include Loss of appetite, severe headaches,and sharp pain in the chest. Also, it tends to result in confusionamong the aged persons.

Theinfection progress starts when pathogens overpower the immune systemof the lungs. As a result, blood capillaries starts to leak fluidthat is protein-rich into the alveoli. The functional area foroxygen-carbon dioxide exchange becomes minimized, thus leading to aperson becoming less oxygenated. A person is forced to breathe at afaster rate, mainly to reduce carbon dioxide in the body andaccumulate more oxygen (Hilliard.,2014). The level of mucus in thedistorted blood capillaries becomes increased, thus slowing down theprocess of gaseous exchange in the lungs. Continued deposition ofdebris materials and other fluid in the alveoli makes it solid likein nature, thus resulting in conditions such as difficulty inbreathing, chills and feeling of pain in the chest when coughing.

Approachesused in the diagnosis of Pneumonia include use of ex-rays, sputumtest which aims at checking if organisms are in the sputum. There isbronchoscopy technique which used in the checkup of the functionalityof lungs and finally, there is physical examination where the doctortests the lungs by listening sounds that they produce using astethoscope (Hilliard.,2014). The crackling and bubbling sound is aclear indication of the presence of pneumonia.

Finally,just like other disorders, pneumonia has treatment. However, themethod adopted depends on its severance. Home based treatment mayinclude use of anti-inflammatory drugs to control fever, drinkingplenty of fluids and getting enough rest (Hilliard.,2014). In casethe infection becomes severe, there is the need to hospitalize thepatient so that he can receive proper treatment.

Reference

Hua,L., Hilliard, J. J., Shi, Y., Tkaczyk, C., Cheng, L. I., Yu, X., …&amp Keller, A. (2014). Assessment of the anti-alpha-toxinmonoclonal antibody for prevention and treatment of Staphylococcusaureus-induced pneumonia. Antimicrobial agents and the chemotherapy,58(2), 1108-1117.