Organization and Control of Neural Function Riku`s Case Study

Organizationand Control of Neural Function: Riku’s Case Study

Organizationand Control of Neural Function Case Study

Afferentand Efferent Neuron

Afferentneurons are neurons that carry information to the brain and spinalcord for analysis also known as sensory systems and are activated byexternal stimuli and convey the stimuli to central nervous system(Enoka, 2008).

Enoka(2008) observed that efferent neurons carry stimuli from the centralnervous system to various muscles and every body organ.

Efferentcomponents of the facial nerve and their actions

  1. Branchial motor (special visceral efferent): Supplies the muscles of facial expression, posterior belly of the digastric muscle, stylohyoid, and stapedius (Enoka, 2008).

  2. Visceral motor (general visceral motor): Parasympathetic innervations of the lacrimal, submandibular, and sublingual glands including mucous membrane of nasopharynx, hard and soft palate (Enoka, 2008).

  3. Special sensory (special afferent): Taste sensation from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, hard and soft palate (Enoka, 2008).

  4. General sensory referred to as general somatic afferent: General sensation from the skin of the concha of the auricle and small area of the ear (Enoka, 2008).

Thereare two major classes of central nervous system regenerationinhibitors which are

  1. Myelin-associated inhibitors: They are proteins expressed by oligodendrocytes as components of central nervous system myelin. They impair neurite outgrowth in vitro and limit axon growth after central nervous system damage (Li, Kuwajima, Oakley, Nikulina, Hou, Yang, Henderson, 2016).

  2. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: They are found in the glial scar that forms after central nervous system nervous injury. The inhibitors constitute of neurocan, versican, brevican, phosphacan, aggrecan, and NG2 (Li et al., 2016).

CNSClinic (2016) observed that acetylcholine is both used in contractionof skeletal muscle and slowing of the heart beat. The action,synthesis, transport, and storage of acetylcholine show how it isinvolved intimately in the transmutation of electrical impulses tochemical transmitters various enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions,acetylcholine receptors, calcium ion channels, calcium receptors, andsodium channels, removal of the neurotransmitters after they haveacted and so forth.

References

CNSclinic. (2016). The Synapse. Retrieved from http://www.humanneurophysiology.com/synapse.htm

Enoka,R. M. (2008). Neuromechanicsof Human Movement.Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Li,H., Kuwajima, T., Oakley, D., Nikulina, E., Hou, J., Yang, W. S.,…Henderson, C. E. (2016). Protein Prenylation Constitutes anEndogenous Brake on AxonalGrowth.In Cell Reports, 16(2),545-558.