Nursing

Db.14

Question1

Firstanswer

Humanbehavior can be explained using different theories. This is based onthe various challenges that people face in their daily lives. Inorder solve these daily obstacles one needs to integrate severalapproaches and come up with what they perceive is the best. Mytheoretical perspective is based on my daily experiences and workschedules and my peers. This affects my behavior. Other factorsinfluencing my behavior include childhood experiences and humanisticvalues. The integrative approach gives one the opportunity toconsider what he or she needs and the reasons behind it. There arealso the possibilities of finding different time frames such as thepast, present, and future. Various approaches just give a frameworkon what to focus on so as to come up with the best decision. Anindividual thus evaluates the available option and decides whichamong them best suit his or her goals and objectives.

Secondanswer

Decidingon a theoretical orientation can be quite challenging. As a result,it is important that one have options to gain enough experience. Theintegrative approach provides the best explanation for humanbehavior. Since life changes with daily experiences, approaching lifein an integrative way gives an opportunity for an individual toadjust. Decisions are made depending on how one is going to benefit,personality, family or experiences. Being limited to one approachonly means that one behaves in a specific way because of oneparticular reason which may not be a reasonable sometimes.

Question2

Firstanswer

Generalsystems theory is based on the assumption that complex systems withdifferent purposes share similar organizing principles which can berepresented in a mathematical model. This approach views humanbeings as an active personality system. Additionally, people whoconform to the General systems theory have the ability to createtheir universe, where they accept challenges, solve problems andexpress their ideas and feelings. General systems theory is based onthe assumption that the world is comprised of systems which arerelated to models, principles, and laws. This theory is a science ofwholeness. On the contrary, in an integrative approach, there are noprinciples or laws that govern behavior. It gives a broad spectrum orreasoning behind certain behavior other than the scientific aspect ofit. Like the general systems theory, integrative approach appreciatesthe different reasons that can be behind different human behavior attimes such as previous life experiences.

Secondanswer

Mytheoretical approach is distinct from the general systems theory. Theassumptions in my approach are that each of the techniques used indifferent methods can be integrated together to form one complexmethod of solving problems. Other than the general systems theorywhich associates personalities with science. Integrative approachappreciates reasoning like experiences to be the reason behindcertain behaviors. The principles and laws that are assumed to bepresent in systems theory are not seen in an integrative approach.The integrative approach tries to find out reasons behind certainbehavior and possible causes of changes.

Db.15

Question1

Firstanswer

Psychodynamicapproach is different from general systems theory in several ways.First, unlike general systems theory, it is based on psychologicalviews. The traps of science bind general systems theory. Thepsychodynamic theory argues that human behavior is controlled by theunconscious drive which is based on experience, relationships andpersonal views about life. (Fall, Holden &amp Marquis, 2011).Systems in Psychology organizational behavior is based on the need ofpeople to interact with systems, on the other hand, psychodynamicapproach personality is built up by the id, ego, and the superego andall this can be modified by childhood experiences. These elements arecritical in shaping personality and human behavior. However, this twocan be considered similar because both appreciate the existence ofdifferences in the way people behave, make decisions and faceproblems. Both of these theories that are used to explain behaviorand human interactions.

Secondanswer

Thereare some a lot of similarities and differences between the twoapproaches. The two are similar in that they try to explain whypeople behave differently. They are also different in that becausethe psychodynamic approach is based on psychological thinking, whilethe other one relies on pure science. In psychodynamic approach, thebehavior depends on personality and can be determined by theunconscious. In general systems theory behavior is based on the needto interact and exist alongside other parts of nature and doesn`trealize the existence of unconscious mind.

Question2

Firstanswer

Theexperiential and relationship oriented approach focuses on thequality of person to person encounter. For example, between acounselor and his or her client. The relationship created between thetwo forms the healing factor for the client. Personal qualities andvalues of the therapists are as essential as her knowledge. (Fall,Holden, &amp Marquis, 2011). These approaches are related to thegeneral system theory because they acknowledge and appreciate thedifferent relationships that are established in the society. However,they do not focus on the scientific aspects of the world, but onlyhuman values. Additionally, they identify the different levels ofexperience and the need to relate to one another. The experientialand relationship oriented approach does not take into accountcultural and ethnic differences between individuals. In this case,the therapist encourages the individual to start behaving in a waythat conforms to the world around them.

Secondanswer

Inboth experiential and relationship oriented approach and generalsystems theory, there is the appreciation of the existence of certainconnections. Both appreciate the need of an individual to adapt todifferent environmental situations and conform to the behaviorsportrayed by those around him or her. The relationships in both arereciprocal to the expected outcomes. A good rapport between thecounselor and client will result in positive behavior change. As thenames suggest, experimental approach is based on trials while therelationship approaches associated with human interaction. Bothignore the impacts of cultural differences.

Question3

Firstanswer

Thegeneral systems theory fits in into the Adlerian approach. Since thetheory views human beings as independent, creative and decisive, itagrees with the nature of the Adlerian approach. The two agreebecause they acknowledge that human beings can use their skills tosolve their problems (fall, Holden, &amp Marquis, 2011). In thissystem, individuals have the ability and capacities to live fully andcontribute positively to the society. Like the general system whichviews the world as an interconnection of different systems, the sameconcept holds in the Adlerian approach. It appreciates that thesociety is made up of people with different abilities. It alsoidentifies individuals with humanity which is a part of the systemsprovided by the general system theory. The approach appreciates theability of people to be creative, and this includes science which isused to define life in the general system theory.

Secondanswer

Theassumptions of the general systems theory make it compatible theAdlerian counseling approach. This theory views the world as aninterconnection of different parts that work together to make thesociety whole. In this method, each is considered as independent,creative, and having the ability to solve their problems. It promotesthe assumption that everybody has something to contribute to thesociety. Humanity, which is a vital part of the Adlerian approach, isalso an important part of the systems theory. It is viewed as asystem which contributes to the science of life.

Db.16

Question1

Firstanswer

Thetheoretical framework that guides my practice ranges fromtask-centered models to problem-solving model.Depending on theissue at hand, I can use the model by focusing on identifying andunderstanding the problem, coming up with the possible solutions andadvising my client on the best policy that they should implement. Theclient can try out solutions while I evaluate the outcome of the newstrategy. In other cases, I can also use the task- centered modelwhereby, I sit with the client and try to break down the problem intosmaller tasks that can be accomplished. Here, the customer isexpected to take up one chance at a time while working within a settime frame. This process aimed at allowing the client to participateand give their input. Successfully completing this task ensures actsas a morale booster and the client can challenge himself/herself moreand thus resulting in growth.

Secondanswer

Ican utilize both task centered or problem-solving approach whiledealing with a client. The model to be used depends on the client andthe case being presented. When the problem-solving model is applied,the issues s first identified, possible solutions identified and theclient is allowed to pick the solution that best serves his needs.Sampling the solutions is encouraged to ensure that the best strategyis implemented. The task-centered model aims at breaking down theproblem into smaller tasks that are tackled one at a time until theentire problem can be solved.

Question2

Firstanswer

Themethod of counseling identified is reality therapy. This treatmentis based on the choice theory which argues that people are in controlof their behavior and are responsible for any outcomes. This type oftherapy is active and directive. The procedure is summarized in amodel called WDEP whereby W stands for wants, needs, and perceptions,D stands for direction and doing, E for evaluation of total behaviorand P for planning and commitment (Fall, Holden &amp Marquis, 2011).Each of these steps is aimed at ensuring the client feels responsiblefor what they are doing and understand the consequences of theiractions. At the end of this process, they are expected to come upwith plans and make commitments to fulfill their set objectives. Aseries of questions are used in this form of therapy to enable theclient to assess themselves and make significant changes.

Secondanswer

Realitytherapy is a method of group counseling that based on choice theory.People are believed to have control over their behavior. It iscomprised of directions and actions. The procedure is summarized intoa model called WDEP (Fall, Holden &amp Marquis, 2011). Duringreality therapy, a series of questions are asked to enable the clientto identify want they want, what they have and why they are notgetting what they want. In other words, the procedure is reliant onself-assessment. The client comes up with solutions on what behaviorthey need to change.

References

Fall,K. A., Holden, J. M., &amp Marquis, A. (2011).&nbspTheoreticalmodels of counseling and psychotherapy.Routledge.

Nursing

InstitutionalAffiliation

Replyto case #1

Relationto Low Hemoglobin, Type II DM, and Diabetic Retinopathy

Itis true that blood oxygen transport capacity is hindered by diabeticretinopathy (DR), retinal ischemia and muscular Oedema because ofcapillary damage as a result of fluid leaks which cause edema andfinally the closure of the vessels. Additionally, the hemoglobinlevels are critical indicators because, in both conditions, the endresults are blockage of blood vessels and neovascularization (Chhabraet al. 1). From an individual’s perspective, instead of relying onhemoglobin levels alone to control the disorders yet Anemia caninterfere with the diagnosis thus giving false experimental results.Maintaining strict control of blood sugar levels and diabeticretinopathy screening can help in the management of the disorders.

References

Chhabra,P., Linden, J., Lobo, P., Douglas Okusa, M., &amp Lewis Brayman, K.(2012). The immunosuppressive role of adenosine A2A receptors inischemia reperfusion injury and islet transplantation.&nbspCurrentdiabetes reviews,&nbsp8(6),419-433.

Responseto Post #2

Asthmaand type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)

Thispost is aimed at illustrating some of the similarities between Asthmaand type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). It is true that both are acommon chronic inflammatory illness. My understanding of the abovetexts is that in Asthma, the T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells mediateinflammatory reactions (Penny et al. 2). In type 1 diabetes mellitus,the same reactions are mediated by Th1-dominant. Just to add to thegiven facts, it is evident that there is an association betweenasthma and increased risk of diabetes mellitus. For instance, the Th1and Th2 secretory patterns in individuals suffering from asthma andT1DM combines the disease features and thus implying Th1/Th2 balance.Additionally, it is true that proinflammatory cytokine IL 18 isproduced by a wide range of immune cells and thus initiatinginflammatory responses.

References

Penny,H. A., Leeds, J. S., Kurien, M., Averginos, A., Hopper, A. D.,Hadjivassiliou, M. &amp Sanders, D. S. (2015). The relationshipbetween inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus: astudy of relative prevalence in comparison with populationcontrols.&nbspJournalof Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases,&nbsp24(1),125-126.

Responseto post #3

Genetictesting

Technologicaladvancements especially, in molecular biology and genetics haverevolutionized healthcare delivery. The case presented in the postwhere some people prefer specific genetic testing to predict theirpotential for a particular disease is a classic example of some ofthe contemporary issues in pharmacogenomics or individualizedmedicine (Whirl-Carrillo 2). In this case, it is likely that the highacceptance rate for diabetes test was based on the cost of treatmentand which among the two had a higher survival rate. Collins et al.suggestion that people would like to be tested for prevention in mindis true because in diabetes one is certain that even if diagnosedwith the condition, there are readily available interventions andinsurance cover can help while in heart conditions, the most only wayout is surgery or heart transplant, and many people cannot afford bythemselves.

References

Whirl-Carrillo,M., McDonagh, E. M., Hebert, J. M., Gong, L., Sangkuhl, K., Thorn, C.F. &amp Klein, T. E. (2012). Pharmacogenomics knowledge forpersonalized medicine.&nbspClinicalpharmacology and therapeutics,&nbsp92(4),414.