JournalEntry, Reporting Results
Yin(2013) argued that the results section of a research paper detailsthe findings of the study methods procedures and present evidence inthe form of tables, texts, or figures this work explains how resultsshould be reported in a journal entry.
Stepsfor Reporting Results
Thefirst step is to present evidence that the study successfullyutilized the conditions for hypotheses testing the readers areassured, for example, that the groups of subjects did not differ onsome unintended variable that may have affected the results. Next,describe the overall procedures utilized to raw observations intoanalyzable information-how were responses coded for analysis? Wereall measures converted to standard scores first? It is alsorecommended that an overview of the results be provided if there aremany sub-sections (Colquhoun et al., 2014).
Presentingthe Results of Empirical Study
Thefirst consideration is to begin with the primary findings then followwith the more peripheral ones hence, remind the reader of theconceptual hypothesis or the research question, then pose a reminderon the operations done and the parameters measured. Then provide theanswer while utilizing one of the many tools available such astables, figures, standard deviation, ANOVA, p-values, t-test andother statistical tools (Bettis et al., 2013). Specifically, Lakens(2013) pointed out that the result section requires the provision ofANOVA table that reflects the source of variation and the sum ofsquares as well as the degrees of freedom, test statistics,appropriate error terms, and p-value regarding the parameters underscrutiny.
Particularly,statistical models and nature of the factors (nested or crossed,fixed or random) are stated as well as the multiple comparisons usedand why the test was selected indicate the statistical power of thetrial regarding all non-significant results (Lakens, 2013). It isimportant to note that these key results must be presented withoutinterpreting their meanings research questions should be logicallyanswered and related with the methods, statistical analysis resultsare summarized in texts, tables, and figures and the figures/chartsincluded must be self-explanatory.
Oncethe results have been adequately presented, Wisdomet al(2012) asserted that what follow is a summary of the major findingsas well as the interpretation of the significance of the research andthe article so that a smooth transition is provided for thesucceeding part of the paper.
Bettis,R., Gambardella, A., Helfat, C., & Mitchell, W. (2014).Quantitative empirical analysis in strategic management. StrategicManagement Journal,35(7),949-953.
Colquhoun,H. L., Levac, D., O`Brien, K. K., Straus, S., Tricco, A. C., Perrier,L., … & Moher, D. (2014). Scoping reviews: time for clarity indefinition, methods, and reporting. Journalof clinical epidemiology, 67(12),1291-1294.
Wisdom,J. P., Cavaleri, M. A., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Green, C. A.(2012). Methodological reporting in qualitative, quantitative, andmixed methods health services research articles. Healthservices research, 47(2),721-745.
Lakens,D. (2013). Calculating and reporting effect sizes to facilitatecumulative science: a practical primer for t-tests andANOVAs. Frontiersin psychology, 4,863.
Yin,R. K. (2013). Casestudy research: Design and methods.New York, U.S: Sage publications.