Journal Article Review


Purpose of the Study

The rise in obesity rates in western nations calls for a lifestyleintervention. Specifically, many Americans have been established tohave metabolic syndrome, which is a result of unhealthy foodsconsumption, especially foods that are processed and have saturatedfat, and the fact that people are physically inactive. However, evenin cases where individuals regularly exercise, the exercise has beenineffective in fat loss. However, high-intensity intermittentexercise (HIIE), as an alternative exercise is effective, but needsto be put into practice together with a diet change.

Hence, the study aims at determining if the inclusion of dietmodification to high-intensity intermittent exercise results in anincrease in the amount of fat loss, which in turn improves metabolichealth. Dunn, Siu, Freund and Boutcher (2014) note that “consuminga 2-year Mediterranean diet (Mediet) high in fibre, omega-3polyunsaturated fatty acids, and fruits and vegetables and low in redmeat and saturated and trans fats has been shown to be beneficial”.In specific, the diet modification decreases insulin resistance aswell as body weight. Additionally, the ability to control weight lossresults in a decline in metabolic syndrome prevalence.

Time Frame

The research was conducted in 2014 because the article was publishedin the same year. It lasted for a period of 12 weeks, whereby thelifestyle program of participants was altered to includeMediterranean diet supplementation as well as exercise. The timeframe of study was the same for both the study and control group.


The participants comprised of thirty-two overweight femalevolunteers. The women were premenopausal, currently in university andaged between 24 and 28 years.


After the 12 week lifestyle intervention program, which comprised ofchanges in the diet consumption of participants and exercise, thestudy concluded that the women recorded significant fat loss, insulintolerance and fitness, resulting in improved metabolic health.


Many women who have any metabolic syndrome resort to exercise inorder to reduce their body fat concentration. However, the studyshows that a lifestyle intervention that comprises of both exerciseand food modification is the most effective in reducing body fat, ascompared to a program that concentrates on exercise alone. The studyparticipants’ fat concentration and metabolic syndromes reduced dueto the combined intervention.


While many people assume that metabolic syndrome is caused byphysical inactivity, the research informs that an unhealthy diet is asignificant contributor. This explains why regular exercise, whichincludes jogging or walking, has been ineffective in reducingmetabolic syndrome criteria such as “obesity, dyslipidemia,hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and elevated glucose levels” (Dunn,Siu, Freund &amp Boutcher, 2014). On the other hand, prolongedexercise intervention is equally ineffective because the individualsexercising are unable to adhere, plus such programs are not popularamong obese adults.

Overweight individuals can opt for highly intense intermittentexercise, which takes a short time and has been proven effective inreducing body fat. However, the exercise should be accompanied bydiet changes. This means that the people exercising should stopconsuming foods that have high fat content, and instead consume foodsthat have high fibre content, fruits and vegetable among otherhealthy foods. The study informs that changing a diet is asignificant step in controlling ones weight, and in turn reducingdiagnosis of any metabolic syndrome. Also, combining the dietmodification with the intermittent exercise will result in permanentweight loss, once the intervention is maintained for a long period.


Dunn, S. L., Siu, W., Freund, J., &amp Boutcher, S. H. (2014). Theeffect of a lifestyle intervention on metabolic health in youngwomen. Journal of Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity, 7,437- 444.