POLICING QUESTIONS 1
1. Explain how Intelligence Led Policing isa new dimension of community policing and how this infusion caneither reduce or prevent crime.
Intelligence-led policing has revolutionizedlaw enforcement in the past years due to the need for organizationand coordination in combating complex crimes (Baker, 2005). In therecent past, criminals have designed newer and more complex methodsof operations ranging from simple burglaries, robberies andaggravated assaults to complex enterprise crimes, narcoticsdistribution and terrorism. Therefore, the law enforcement agenciescannot rely on traditional and obsolete methods of crime preventionthrough informal processes and dependence on people’s memories inthe current era. As the sophistication in criminal activities arises,a more complex method should be created to combat these crimes(Peterson, 2005). Intelligence-led policing is the new dimension,especially in community policing and it helps to reduce and preventcrime.
Intelligence-led policing mainly focuses ontraditional and non-traditional criminal entities like street gangs,drug cartels, terrorism and other forms of organized crime(Ratcliffe, 2016). Other areas of interest include burglaries androbberies. All these criminal activities affect the security of thecommunity in one way or the other. Traditional community policinginvolved “reactive” responses by the police when the crime hadalready occurred (Newbold, 2015). This led to increased loss of livesand property as consequence of untamed criminal activities.
The continued “reactive-response” trendcalled for a more proactive approach where the law enforcementagencies took time to identify and analyze the crime patterns andanticipate any threats to the community (Newbold, 2015). In thismanner, more crimes were prevented before they could happen. Suchmilestones can only be achieved through prior investigative work togain tangible intelligence from the community. Through thisintelligence information, criminal activities can be reduced orprevented from occurring.
Intelligence-led policing follows a specifiedcycle to gather adequate data relating to specific crimes in thecommunity. For instance, narcotics use and distribution in thecommunity can be identified through information from drug users,community residents, paid informants, physical and electronicsurveillances, print and visual media, police records andcorroborated information from other law enforcement agencies(Ratcliffe, 2016). This information is subsequently, targeted tospecific areas or crime syndicates based on their threat to humanlives and property losses. Through such personalized targeting,concentration can be put on the specific areas to unravel thepatterns of crimes.
The information is then passed to highlyqualified crime analysts who collate the data and carry out intenseanalysis to create relationships, linkages and logical conclusionsbased on the developed hypotheses or assumptions (Bullock, 2013). Theanalyzed intelligence is then evaluated and disseminated accordinglyto drive actionable responses by the relevant police agencies.
The systematic way of collection and analysisof criminal information helps the police to anticipate and prioritizetheir resources in combating crime before it happens(Bullock,2013).In this manner, law breakers are arrested and charged or killedin action liberating the community of crimes. Collaboration betweenthe community and the police is important because most of the crimesare never random. Community residents usually have some informationabout every activity that occurs in their neighborhoods. This way thepolice can gather the necessary intelligence and make speedyresponses (Bullock, 2013). Ultimately, crime levels in the communityare reduced or prevented effectively.
2. Campus Security Action Plan
In combating criminal activities in theuniversity such as car thefts, hostels robberies and in-campusburglaries, the first step is to scan and identify all the keypatterns of crime. This will follow a Modus Operandi system whichdetails the patterns of crime in terms of target areas, frequency andtiming, methods of operation and crimes execution behaviors (Baker,2005). From such information, the necessary overlaps can beestablished to advise if the crimes are committed by one person or agroup or by different independent people or groups. For instance,isolated robberies and burglaries which follow the same break-inpatterns are likely to be committed by a specific person or a gang.
The next step will involve information from thevictims, witnesses, students, campus security agency, administrationand the general staff. This information will help the police tocreate a plan of action based on its circumstance. It will also helppolice to understand the crime. For instance, when investigatingdomestic violence, the police will have a better understanding ifthey comprehend the domestic violence cycle and the physical assaults(Baker, 2005). The next step will be to carry out a thoroughinvestigation through on-ground informants, electronic and physicalsurveillance. This will entail CCTV cameras and police patrols in thearea around the clock.
Analysis of the data will be done by targetingthe areas prone to attacks and collating this data to remove anyunnecessary and useless information. Checking for linkages andrelationships in the information will guide on establishing logicalconclusions (Newbold, 2015). This can be done by corroborating thedata with the previous police records on robberies and car thefts inthe surrounding areas and in the city. Most of the time, criminalgangs operate within a specified locality and it would be necessaryto counter check the available information from the university withthe stored information from police databases.
Validity and reliability of the informationwill be sought through evaluation and this will guide the policeagency on the steps to take (Newbold, 2015). The information will beavailed to the tactical team to crack down the relevant suspects forquestioning. This will provide the department with the additionalnecessary information to arrest all the other perpetrators involvedin the syndicate.
The police department will also makerecommendations to the university to set up cameras and securityalarms all over the campus both in residential and campus buildingsprovide good lighting in the campus especially street lighting andsecurity lights in buildings provide a security hotline for rapidresponse in campus ensure adequate security patrols and stations incampus especially around car parks and other relevant areas andfinally to carry out security awareness campaigns in school toencourage students and staff to report any strangers and peculiaroccurrences.
The recommendations above will help to preventany sudden robberies, thefts and burglaries in the university andescalate the likelihood of arresting any perpetrators. Securityalarms and cameras compounded with adequate patrols will ensure rapidresponse to criminal activities. This will ultimately maintain thepeace and security needed in the university, and also in the society.
3. Explain how the intelligence cycle worksand how it is applicable to intelligence led policing efforts incombating illegal narcotics sales and distribution in the community.
Criminal analysis requires a coordinatedprocess which involves various units of the law enforcement agenciessuch as crime analysts, investigators and law enforcement officers(Newbold, 2015). This analysis follows a specified information andintelligence cycle to achieve the set mandate. Intelligence cycle isbased on procedural guidelines and protocols which ensure gatheringof reliable and valid information (Baker, 2005). Intelligence cycleinvolves collection of information which is then targeted, collated,evaluated and then disseminated to necessary law enforcers fordecision making.
Collection of crime information is done by thecrime analysts and crime investigators (Baker, 2005). The informationis highly coordinated and updated frequently to achieve both theintelligence objectives and sealing information gaps that may exist.This coordination also helps to avoid duplication and save onresources. Collection of information is usually personalized andfocused on specific targets (Ratcliffe, 2016).
The methods of collection can either be overtor covert. Overt methods involve open sources such as the print medialike newspapers, libraries and public records which help to build onthe criminal activities data (Ratcliffe, 2016). Covert methods on theother hand, involve collection of information from informants,physical surveillance and electronic surveillance. Other sources ofinformation could be from the victims, neighbors and essentialcriminal intelligence from other law enforcement agencies.
The collected information is then targeted tospecific areas where the crime occurs. A good example is targetingburglary information to specific business, building and person.Targeting focuses on a narrow area of interest rather than a widearea (Baker, 2005). These targets are then prioritized depending onthe criminal threat they face or pose. Targeting helps to keeprecords and manage relevant information concerning specific areas ofinterest and ensure timely access of this data by law enforcers andinvestigators.
Targeted information undergoes collation whichis the initial step to analyzing and transforming raw data tointelligence or criminal information (Baker, 2005). Collationinvolves discarding incorrect and useless data and arranging itsystematically to achieve connective relationships and patterns.Collation also requires a coordinated filing system for easyretrieval of information. Collated information is then analyzed wherevarious assumptions and critical thoughts are put into play to createlogical patterns (Baker, 2005). The constructed patterns are used ashypothesis to develop conclusions. Many alternative hypotheses can becreated and the analysts can use their research acumen to evaluateand make valid conclusions.
Evaluation requires judgment of validity,reliability, accuracy and truthfulness of the information and itssource (Baker, 2005). The analyzed and evaluated information is thendisseminated to end users as criminal intelligence (Baker, 2005).Speed and accuracy are very important in dissemination of thisintelligence to the law enforcers who need it usually on a“need-to-know” basis.
The intelligence cycle is applicable incombating narcotics distribution in the community since pertinentinformation from various trusted sources can be gathered and targetedto specific people or distribution cells by order of priority ofcriminal threat (Baker, 2005). The information can then be collatedand analyzed to create patterns of supply, distribution, key drugdealers and target consumers. Evaluation for validity and reliabilityof this information and its source is sought. Approved intelligenceis then disseminated to relevant law enforcement units for action.The disseminated intelligence is usually highly classified and is ona need-to-know basis to prevent leakage and ensure successfulanti-drugs operations.
4. Compare and contrast Strategic, tacticaland actionable intelligence to addressing violent street crime(robbery, murder, aggravated assaults).
Strategic, tactical and actionable intelligencehave a big role in curbing street crimes such as robberies, murdersand aggravated assaults. Strategic analysis involves a long-termscope of studies aimed at determining the trends of street crimes andusually published in quarterly and annual reports (Baker, 2005).Strategic analysis plays an important role in fighting street crimebecause the findings from the studies done give an overview of thesituation on the ground and helps to plan for possible responses. Theinformation provided in the reports advises on the acquisition andallocation of resources by the law enforcement agencies. Fightingcrime requires a high level of coordination and availability ofadequate resources (Baker, 2005).
Law enforcement agencies such as the police,Federal Bureau of Investigations and Homeland Security require ampleallocation of resources from the government through specifiedconstitutional mandate and congressional approval. In anticipation offuture increase in street crimes, the police need to be wellcoordinated and given all the necessary support and resources by thegovernment to combat them. The projections provided by strategicanalysis of street crimes define the amount of resources required interms of prioritization of monetary support, personnel, equipment andinvestigative work (Ratcliffe, 2016). Strategic intelligence usuallycovers a wider scope of geographical coverage to unfathomed similarviolent crimes across cities, counties or states.
Tactical intelligence involves short term andlocalized analysis of violent street crimes in relation to policeoperations (Baker, 2005). The intelligence is able to identify andprioritize all the potential violent street crimes that need urgentintervention. This process requires meticulous crime analysis whichdetermines crime specific planning, crime forecasting andproblem-solving approach by the police (Baker, 2005). This approachinvolves considerations of the motives behind the crime, tacticalplanning and logistics and the type of street crimes. The ultimateintervention is deployment of the police to combat, suppress andprevent future crimes in the area.
Actionable intelligence provides prerequisiteinformation that can be acted upon (Baker, 2005). In the case ofstreet crimes such as robberies and aggravated assault, actionableintelligence follows a Modus Operandi system which details thepatterns of crime in terms of targets, timing, assault objects andmethod of operation and crimes execution behaviors (Baker, 2005). Theintelligence is often sought from the existing records with emphasison known offenders and mug shot files. This is because most of streetcrimes are not random but require prior planning, reasoning anddecision making before execution.
Most of the robberies are usually made bywell-known criminals who may use same techniques of robbery (Newbold,2015). Real time intelligence from cooperating agencies and trustedinformants can also provide the necessary information (Baker, 2005).From such intelligence the law enforcers are able to plan and executenecessary arrests and recovery of stolen goods.
All the three types of intelligence arenecessary in combating such crimes because they range from immediateactions to long term strategies which lead to reduction in criminalactivities. Coordination and interoperability of different lawenforcement agencies should be encouraged in order to share relevantintelligence that may enable faster and efficient apprehension ofcriminals, making the neighborhoods safer for living and working.
Baker, T.E (2005). IntroductoryCriminal Analysis: Intervention and Prevention Strategies.Upper Saddle River NJ. Earson Education Inc.
Bullock, K. (2013). Community, intelligence-ledpolicing and crime control. Policingand Society, 23 (2), 125-144.
Newbold, J. (2015). ‘PredictivePolicing’, ‘Preventative Policing’ or ‘Intelligence LedPolicing’. What is the future?,Warwick: Warwick Business School
Peterson, M. (2005). Intelligence-ledpolicing: The new intelligence architecture.Washington DC: US Department of Justice.
Ratcliffe, J. H. (2016). Intelligence-ledpolicing. New York: Routledge.