1.It was being an underdog, did not have much say.

2.They were not good terms with each other.

3.They considered them as outsiders or diaspora.

4.The Jews in Elephantine wrote frequently to Jerusalem

5.They saw Egyptians as good neighbors but this changed when theirpriests plotted to destroy their temple.

6.They saw them as the ideal authority to put Egyptians on check.

7. They saw them as foreigners

8.They saw them as outside authority threatening their rule.

9.They saw them as good allies to help them watch the Egyptians.

10.They gave them their deserved respect and especially theirreligious beliefs.

11.There were numerous attempts by the Persians to conquer Egypt

12.She gives reference from the Talmud which describes all these.

13.The Babylonian Sanhedrin 43 a-b.

14.They all claimed that he was God and also gave their lives forthis belief.

15.That He would come back for them and take them where He went.

16.The words that Jesus had told them were so convincing to them

17.To believe that indeed Jesus was God.

18.He emphasized on spiritual and not physical circumcision.

19.They referred to Jesus as the temple that was destroyed in a daybut was rebuilt in three days.

20.They said that rebuilding the temple in three days would be soimpossible after its destruction.

21.The Jews in Babylon and Syria and in Egypt.

22.Memoirs of the Apostles and the writings of the Prophets whichwere frequently read on Sundays.

23.He wrote in a more reflective point of view, others wrote asreport of what happened.

24.John was the most beloved and had more solid relation with Jesus.

25.They used the authority to get rid of the Christians because theywere turning people against them.

26.The Torah, the Bible and the oral law.

27.They both defined themselves as serving the same God but the Jewssee as polytheism and idolatrous.

28.That the Jews are people not to be liked for their religiousstand.

29.They granted immunity to Christians especially after conversioninto Christianity.

30.He continually spearheaded all efforts to let Christians worshipfreely without punishment.

31.He rejected all of his predecessor’s edicts and traditions anddecided to adopt philosophy.

32.Because it reflects what the whole community thinks on certaincritical issues.

33.There were two factions, the mainstream and the Protestants whodiffered in views.

34.Divisions were led by Patriarchs.

35.United Jews because they had the same enemy.

36.This new lifestyle earned the emperor more loyalty from the peopleand meant increased conquests.

37.Their churches were burnt and all that carried the Christian namewith it.

38.They were heavily taxed and deprived of property.

39.By merging some of the Jewish tribes against the others and takingthe city by storm.

40.They lost everything they had and some Jews also threatened tokill some of them.

41.They occupied it and rebuilt everything that had been destroyedearlier.


Theanti-Semitism indeed existed in the Byzantine-Persian empires.Constantine’s predecessor Justinian 1, deprived the Jews all therights of holding any positions in the public service or military.The fourth crusade also showed this because the Byzantine Jews seemedto come from a weakened empire.

42.They were remnant that was meant to rebuild the temple.

43.He was the founder of the Islamic religion and a holy prophet

44.He went to Medina escaping persecution from the tribes of Mecca.

45.It held that no war to was to be started without theacknowledgment of Muhammad.

46.He was a reformer to Judaism.

47.They did not accept his ideas because of great differences intheology that he had.

48.He expelled them because they had broken the constitution of themedina.

49.These he also expelled them for accepting him as their leader andfor plotting to kill him.

50.Their land was confiscated as a punishment for attempting to unitewith other Jews in order to oust Medina.

51.To Byzantine territories like Egypt, Syria, Palestine, NorthAfrica, and others.

52.They made treaties that identified the rights of those theycaptured.

53.Right to own possessions.

54.If they got enlisted into the Islamic military and fight with themthen they gain those benefits.

55.The mention of how the prophet stipulated how to honor the treaty.

56.They faced hardships that they initially didn’t experienceespecially with frequent wars.

57.They adopted to the way of life of the locals.

58.It created a new community after the prophet’s death.

59.The requirements that non-Muslims must convert to Islam is in itsway anti-Semitism.

60.They were forced to accept the terms of the prophet while luredsometimes with a treaty that is not fulfilled in the long run.

61.They are both of the same statures since they all have the samegoal, to diminish someone.

62.They got some pieces of land that they used to survive on and alsoacted as workers too.

63.They would only get to work as workers but not gain any morerights as Muslims.