History of Reading/ Literacy

Historyof Reading/ Literacy

Historyof Reading/ Literacy

Clearlyidentify the era you researched: Social and Cultural Influences andeffects: 1990-2016

Fromthe material on the Social and Cultural influences as well as theconsequences of 1990-2016, there are revelations on influences andimpacts of attacks and acts of terrorism on education. One of themoments that I put more focus on was the 1999 period. In this eon,two Columbine students went on a killing spree that left over tenstudents dead and several others wounded at the Colorado School. Ialso looked at the 2001 bouts, a period when nineteen al Qaedaextremists performed terrorist activities in the United States ofAmerica the radicals hijacked four commercial jets on the morning ofSeptember 11.

Ialso had a concern on the 2007 VT University shootings where astudent aged 23 years old shot several students in the dorm andclassroom and lastly the attack by a 20-year-old youth who kills themother and invades sandy hook elementary school where he kills morethan fifteen children and six other adults. Besides the events onattacks, another critical time of events was during President Obama`sreign from 2008 to 2012 that brought about enforcements that ensuredall the children are taught, and the face of education is changed.

Theseattacks affected education in the United States of America and thegovernment through relevant departments had to ensure proper measuresare put to prevent such attacks in the future. Each attack in its erahad social effects on education, and different approaches were set toimprove security hence improved education in the United States ofAmerica.

TheAttack in Coloradoof 1999

Theattack happened at the Littleton school in Colorado on the 20th ofApril in the year 1999. Two students of Columbine origin went on akilling spree shooting fellow students. This attack left 15 dead and23 other students wounded. At that time it was the worst schoolshooting in America making all the schools in the US put stiff safetyand security measures to avoid future killings.

The9/11 Attacks and its Effect on Education of 2001

Thisattack happened on September 11th where close to nineteen Al-Qaedaterrorists highjacked four commercial planes killing a total of 2976people and the terrorists as well (Valerie, 2012). These attacks hadsignificant effects on the US and the world as a whole. It made theUS government develop a new curriculum that focused on homelandsecurity to be taught in the universities around America.

TheVT University Student Killings in 2007

TheVT incidence was an assault in 2007 where a 23-year-old studentkilled two students in the hostels and went on to kill other thirtyin the classroom at Virginia Technical University. The student alsoleft other fifteen students wounded with gun shots. It was also oneof the deadliest shooting incidents in a school in the history ofAmerica. The occurrence made new safety procedures come to effect inall the schools around the US.

TheSandy Hooks School Mass Shooting in 2012

On14th December of the year 2012, a youth aged 20 years killed hismother and while on the run invaded the sandy hook school where hekilled twenty children and six grownups this becomes the 2nd worstmass shooting of all time in the US by a single individual. This leadto increased and tightened security measures across American schools.

Obama’sEnactment of the Common Core on Education (2008-2012)

WhenPresident Obama was elected to office as the 44th president of theUnited States of America, he brought the No Child Left Behind Actthat ensured that all the children got equal access to education.Though it faced challenges from the ongoing economic problems of thattime, it came to bore fruits later. It changed the face of educationand gave the low-income and minority students the equal chances ofbeing educated.

ChangesMade to Improve the Face of Education

Generally,from all the events in the different eras presented. The Americangovernment has from time to time put appropriate measures to improvethe education sector from the presented events. Most of the eventsthat are attacks, security measures, and proper safety procedureshave been put across all the schools and universities in the nation.Also, a curriculum has been developed over time to study more onhomeland security in the American universities and colleges (William,2013). Various leaders like President Obama have also enacted somepolicies to ensure the face of education is improved.

Learningfrom all the Presentations

Theinformation that I was able to learn from all the presentations isthat there has been a development being made in the education sectorin the United States of America. For example, in 1990 there was theestablishment of the Teach for America that saw the reestablishmentof the national teacher`s corps. Thus, the reestablishment led to therecruitment and creation of new educators. Developments were thusobserved in the schooling sector. The nation`s first charter schoolwas opened up in the year 1992 followed by the passing of regulationsthat saw the restriction of the undocumented aliens from accessingthe public education in the U.S. in 1994. The improvements led tovarious discussions of allowing transgender individuals in schools touse bathrooms and washrooms that were matching their gender identityin the year 2013. Therefore, it indicated the constant developmentthat was taking place in the edification sector based on theactivities of the epoch that attempted to make schooling in theUnited States of America have value and appreciated by stakeholders.

The80`s Reaganomics did not trickle down to education as the 80`sincident caused a class divide in the school sector while the errorin 1990-2016 saw the adoption of equality in the same field. Thus, inthe earlier times, there was inequality being practiced in theeducation segment, and this was later abandoned and did not trickledown to the 1990-2016 age. The presentation that took place betweenthe years 1990 and 2016 aimed at making changes that eliminateddiscrimination in the education sector.

Ilearned that the heartbreak for several American residents is thefact that Democratic governments have not formulated new initiativesfor countering the rising partiality caused by the Reagan &quotTrickleDown&quot Economics Theory (Janet &amp Christine, 2015). Thepolicies of the government, inclusive of trade pacts, cutbacks in theeducation expenditure, diminished government spending as well asfailing to actively assault the financial crisis, have led to immenseinequality within the US republic for which people should beembarrassed.


Thereis a value of studying history from the experience of reading thepresentations in the social and cultural effects from 1990-2016. Thevalue is that it presents an understanding and appreciation of theefforts that has been put in place to make sure there is animprovement in the learning sector. For example, in the 2001 timethat I chose for discussion, the result of terrorism saw thedevelopment of security measures in all universities around theUnited States of America (Janet &amp Christine, 2015). There was anestablishment of a homeland security that was mandated to ensurethere is maximum security that would thwart the risks of terrorism inthe campuses.

Consequently,there is a value in studying history from the experience as iteducates on the journey that various organizations and the governmenthave followed to ensure that there is progress in different sectors.For example, the experience from the presentations is that it makesthe reader understand the developments that have been taking place inthe American education system from 1990 to 2016. Thus, learning fromthe experience makes it easy for policy developer to formulate somesteps and mechanisms that were used in a particular time andimplemented them in a new era (Janet &amp Christine, 2015).

WhatI learned from the changing views is the ardent fact that there wascollaboration when there were changes bring carried out in theinstructional changes in schools. The era attempted to includerelevant stakeholders to modify the systems in the schools.


JanetA., &amp Christine, L. (2015). Reading History: A Practical Guide toImproving Literacy. Oxford University Press, USAValerie,B. (2012). The9/11 Terror Attacks.The Creative Company.William,C. (2013). HomelandSecurity Law and Policy. CharlesC Thomas Publisher.