Gender Research Annotated Bibliography

GenderResearch: Annotated Bibliography

GenderResearch: Annotated Bibliography

Methodsof Research

Singh,H., &amp Negi, S. (2016). Gender equality and women empowerment: Aqualitative study on Kinnaur Tribal women in social work prospective.InternationalJournal of Management and Social Sciences,3 (2), 163-181.

Thearticle discusses about the application of a qualitative methodologyin the study of the issue of gender equality. The aim of the studywas to explore the aspect of gender equality in the perspective ofsocial work. Singh and Negi argued that gender inequality is ahistorical issue that is mostly characterized by discriminationagainst women. The persistent discrimination against women made itnecessary to conduct a qualitative study that could indicate the roleof customs in the occurrence of gender inequality. The authors reliedon the data collected from the District of Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh.The researchers selected the qualitative methodology because itfacilitates the in-depth investigation of the underlying issue. Theyrecruited a total of 40 participants. All participants were selectedusing the random sampling approach. The data for the measurement ofqualitative variables was collected by holding discussions with focusgroups and conducting case studies. A qualitative data was alsocollected from the secondary sources. The findings of the researchindicated that the people of Kinnaur practice customers that limitgender equality. For example, the research indicated that theresidents do not believe that women should have the legal rights toown property. In addition, the authors managed to indicate that thelack of awareness makes a significant contribution towards genderinequality. The article is an important source that indicates theusefulness of the qualitative methodology in the study of socialissues. The qualitative methodology is based on human experience,which implies that the data used in the study reported in the articleis more compelling and powerful.

U.N.Women (2016). Conducting research, data collection, and analysis.U.S.Women.Retrieved September 26, 2016, from&lthttp://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/322-conducting-research-data-collection-and-analysis-.html&gt

Theauthors focused on the key methods of research that can be used toinvestigate issues that pertain to gender equality. The researchmethods discussed in the article are presented in a context in whichthe rights of women are violated because of their gender. The purposeof such a research can be accomplished by collecting data using thequalitative or quantitative approaches. Each of the methodology hasits merits and drawbacks. The qualitative approach is preferredbecause it facilitates an in-depth and a rapid assessment of thegender equality issue. This benefit of the qualitative approach canbe attributed to the fact that researchers are required to use asmall number of subjects, which makes it possible to get moredetailed information. The quantitative approach provides lessdetailed information, but it takes account of the views of thegeneral population. The findings of a quantitative research can begeneralized to the rest of the population, which increase theusefulness of the methodology in the study of gender sensitivetopics. A population-based survey is among the key approaches thatare used when researchers decide to apply the quantitativemethodology. The authors of the article held that a survey can helpthe authors assess a wide range of variables, including attitudes,knowledge, and practices of the gender equality issues. Therefore,this article is a useful resource that can be used to inform theprocess of selecting the methodology for a study on gender issues.

Vendrell,R., Capdevila, R., Dalmau, M., Geis, A. &amp Ciller, L. (2014).Descriptive study on gender equity in early childhood education inCatalonia, Spain. InternationalJournal of Humanities and Social Science,4 (7), 279-290.

Thearticle provided a descriptive approach that is based on acombination of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Thedescriptive mixed method was used to analyze gender equality in theeducation sector in the region of Catalonia, Spain. The aim of usingqualitative and quantitative approaches was to assess the reality ofgender disparity in early childhood education in the Catalonia. Apartfrom the qualitative and quantitative techniques, the application ofan ad hoc questionnaire helped the researchers collect credible datathat helped them pursue the purpose of their study. Gender equalitywas assessed among learners aged between 3 and 6 years. The perceivedlevel of equality was measured using the 4 point Likert scale thatwas integrated into the questionnaire. The results of themixed-method study indicated that the stakeholders in the educationsector have a high level of awareness regarding the issue of genderinequality in classes. However, the issue of gender equality can beaddressed by adopting strategies that can help people change theattitudes, which can be accomplished through organizational andteaching experiences. The article is a high quality source becausethe mixed method helped the researchers take advantage of thebenefits of both the qualitative and quantitative techniques. Forexample, the principles of the qualitative technique helped theminvestigate the issue of gender equality in-depth while the aspectsof the quantitative method helped them increase the objectivity aswell as the possibility of generalizing the findings.

GenderRole Attitude

BritishSocial Attitudes (2016). Attitudes to gender roles: Change over time.BritishSocial Attitudes.Retrieved September 26, 2016, from&lthttp://www.bsa.natcen.ac.uk/latest-report/british-social-attitudes-30/gender-roles/attitudes-to-gender-roles-change-over-time.aspx&gt

Thearticle published on this website addressed the drastic change in theattitude that the members of the society have regarding gender roles.The authors covered changes that have been taking place in a periodof three decades. One of the main focuses on the authors was todetermine the change in perception that people of regarding thewomen’s engagement in professional careers and men’s role asproviders of the family. The authors relied on the results ofdifferent surveys that focused on changes taking place in Britain.The findings of these surveys indicated that many people believe thatwomen should make a contribution to the income of the household,which implies that they should engage in professional careers. Thepercentage of people who believe that the role of women is to lookafter the family, while men take care of all financial needs havedrastically reduced since the 1980s. For example, about 36 % of thecitizens who took part in the survey in 1987 believed that most ofthe women would go for the caring roles as opposed to professionalcareers. This attitude had changed by 1989 when 68 % of the peopleheld that women with children of the school going age should engagein income earning tasks in order to supplement the husbands’income. Therefore, the article indicates the usefulness of the surveyin studying trends in the change of attitudes to gender roles.

Fazeli,E., Golmakini, N., Taghipour, A. &amp Shakeri, M. (2015). Therelationship between demographic factors gender role attitudes inwomen referring to Mashhad health care centers in 2014. Journalof Midwifery and Reproductive Health,3 (1), 276-284.

Theaim of conducting the study was to assess the association betweengender role attitudes and demographic factors. The researchersestablished this relationship using the data provided by women livingin Iran. Gender role attitude is affected by cultural as well asbiosocial factors that in turn determine one’s success in social,professional, and social life. The aim of the scientific study wasaccomplished using a cross-sectional study design. Data was collectedfrom 712 female subjects. The researchers recruited theirparticipants using the stratified sampling approach. The demographicchecklist and questionnaires were the key tools used to collect data.The use of ANOVA helped the authors evaluate the relationship betweendependent and independent variables. The results of thecross-sectional study indicated that gender role attitudes and somedemographic factors have a positive correlation. For example, age,occupation, education level, and the size of the family had asignificant relationship with egalitarian and stereotype attitudes.The authors concluded that gender role attitudes are influenced bymultiple factors, including demographic, economic, and socialfactors. The article provided critical information indicating themost important factors that determine attitudes that people developregarding gender roles. However, the application of a stratifiedsampling strategy increased the risk of bias, which implies that thefindings may not be generalized to populations, other than Iranianwomen. However, the study could not indicate the relationship betweengender role attitudes and birth order. This limitation was associatedwith the social structure of the population that was studied.

Fenyes,H. (2014). Gender attitudes among higher education students inBorderland Central-Eastern European region called Partium. CEPSJournal,4 (2), 49-70.

Theaim of the empirical study was to determine the specific types ofattitudes that young people in the higher education institutionsidentify themselves with, especially with regard to gender roles.Fenyes hypothesized that students in the higher educationinstitutions tend to identify themselves with the modern gender rolesthan the general population. The data collected from the institutionsof higher education students from the Borderland helped the authorsexamine the specific gender role attitudes that affect students andtheir policy implications. The aim of the empirical study wasachieved by conducting a survey that involved a total of about 602students from higher learning institutions. The students wererecruited into the empirical study through a cluster sampling.Although the sampling method was chosen because of its simplicity, itincreased the risk of bias. Fenyes targeted master’s degreestudents who were under the full-time program. The data were analyzedusing the logistic regression model. The use of SPSS software toperform the data analysis enhanced the accuracy of the results. Theresults of this quantitative research indicated that a large numberof students who are pursuing higher education identify themselveswith the conventional attitudes regarding gender roles. However,women were more likely to identify themselves with the modernattitude since they feel that they need to be given a chance topursue professional jobs, instead of remaining in kitchens. Inaddition, learners with strong religious backgrounds were more likelyto hold traditional attitudes than the general population of master’sstudents. Although there is a possibility of subjectivity in thestudy due to the application of cluster sampling, the articleprovides useful information that indicates differences in attitudesheld by students regarding gender roles. However, the researcher didnot include some important variables, such as the faculty-typeeffect.

Sex-RoleComparisons

Alavi,K., Eftekhar, M. &amp Nadoushan, A. (2015). Comparison of masculineand feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identitydisorder. SexualMedicine,3, 261-268.

Theaim of the three researchers was to compare the gender roleperception in the population of Iranians suffering from identitydisorders. They compared the struggles that the control groups andthe rest of the participants go through as they try to determinefeminine and masculine gender roles. They accomplished this purposeby examining the data collected from GID patients from Iran. Thestudy was accomplished using a cross-sectional design. About 209participants were recruited to take part in the research. Twelve ofthe participants were male-female and 27 of them were female-maleGID. The control group was comprised of 89 women and 81 men. Data wasgathered from these participants using self-reported inventories andquestionnaires. The chi-square test helped the researchers comparethe sex-role perceptions between the two groups. The resultsindicated that the male-female GID persons had an equal score as themale participants in the control group. However, their score was lessthan that of the female in the control groups on the masculinityscale. The female-male GID group, on the other hand, had a higherscore than the rest of the groups on the femininity scale. Inoverall, the results indicate that individuals with GID are lesslikely to identify with traditional gender roles compared to normalpersons.The study provided a comparison of sex role betweenpatients with gender identity disorders and control groups. Theresearch made a significant contribution to the body of knowledge byindicating that male and female subjects are likely to expressdifferent tendencies to identify themselves with the conventionalgender roles. However, the study did not take account of the impactof the cultural factors.

CharlesStuart University (2016). Gender roles and gender differences.CharlesStuart University.Retrieved September 26, 2016, from&lthttp://web.csulb.edu/~kmacd/361SEX.html&gt

Thearticle is a comparison of the differences in sex role between menand women. The website indicates that the gender stereotypedetermines the views that men and women have regarding the sex-roledifferences. Men are considered by the society as people who like tomanipulate and control their surroundings. Men are also regarded asassertive, dominant, and independent human beings who assume theleadership roles in their relationships. The society, on the otherhand, regards women as individuals who are quite passive andsensitive human beings who play the supporting role in relationships.The article was based on the opinion of the expert’s, given thatthe website is owned by an academic institution. The websiteindicates that the sex role differences between men and women can beattributed to traditional views held by the society regarding thecharacteristics as well as the duties of each one of them in a givenrelationship. However, the website indicates that men are influencedmore by traditional views when determining sex roles than women. Thistrend can be attributed to the fact that the sex roles assigned bythe society favor men while oppressing women. Although the content ofthe website is founded on the opinion of the experts, it is a usefulsource that provides a fair comparison of sex roles.

Jahanbakhsh,S., Jomehri, F. &amp Mujembari, A. (2014). The comparison of women’sself confidence in base of gender role. Procedia-Social andBehavioral Science, 191, 2285-2290.

Theaim of the research was to compare the level of self confidence inwomen with regard to their sex roles. The need for the society toenjoy the contribution of members of both genders prompted theresearchers to investigate whether men and women have developed newmeanings for sex roles. The concept of Androgyny was used to overcomethe perceived stereotype of women and men. The aim was to answer thequestion “Do female subjects of Androgynous gender role have ahigher level of self-confidence compared to women of different genderroles?” The researchers conducted a survey of 350 participants.Participants were working women in Tehran, who were recruited from apopulation of 494,315 people. The assessment was accomplished usingSandra Ben Sex-Role Inventory and the questionnaire. These women wereaged between 18-65 years. The researchers used the random samplingapproach. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS software. Someof the statistics used include regression, Pearson correlation, andvariance. The results indicated that sex-roles could be used as thekey predictors of self-confidence among women. In addition, only 22 %of the subjects had female sexual roles. About 21 % of them assumedmale sexual roles. Self-confidence among Androgyny women was found tobe less compared to those with a female sexual role. However, thislevel of self-confidence was higher compared to subjects with themale sexual role. The research provided a comparison of sex roles andthe level of self confidence. The application of the random samplingapproach reduced the risk of bias, which implies that the findingsare reliable and can be generalized to other populations. However,they focused on the working women and failed to consider theperception of housewives.

Relationships

Doyle,M., Rees, M. &amp Titus, L. (2015). Perceptions of same-sexrelationships and marriage as gender role violations: An examinationof gendered expectations (sexism). Journalof Homosexuality,62 (11), 1576-1598.

Doyleand Titus intended to investigate whether the society considers thesame sex relationships to be a violation of the traditional genderroles. In addition, the research project aimed to determine whetherthe members of the society consider the expression of gender rolesand sexual orientation as different factors. Therefore, the authorsfocused on the determination of whether people’s sexual orientationcould influence their ability to value traditional gender roles. Theauthors hypothesized that perceptions held by different people aboutthe same sex-relationships can be considered as a function ofpolitical ideology and identity. Doyle and Titus accomplished thepurpose of their study using the data collected from a total of 132participants. The participants were sampled from the population ofthe LGBT communities. The questionnaire was the major instrumentused to facilitate the process of data collection. The survey designallowed the researchers to collect the data from a large number ofparticipants. The outcome of the survey indicated that 32 % of thesubjects consider the same sex relationships as the violation ofgender roles. However, the perception held by participants about thesame sex relationship varied with the gender identity of individuals.The most liberal participants held a belief that the same sexrelationship does not violate the traditional gender roles. However,the heterosexual participants who held non-liberal views consideredthe same sex relationships as an extreme violation of traditionalgender roles held by the society. The article provides usefulinformation about a controversial type of relationship that involvespeople with the same type of gender. However, the reliance on thedata collected from the members of the minority groups limited thepossibility of generalizing the findings.

Taniguchi,H. &amp Kaufman, G. (2014). Gender role attitudes, troubles talk,and marital satisfaction in Japan. Journalof Social and Personal Relationships,31 (7), 975-994.

Taniguchiand Kaufman conducted the research with the aim of determining theimpact of gender role attitudes on relationships involving marriedcouples. The two researchers intended to determine the differencesbetween men and women in terms of their satisfaction inrelationships. The differences were measured by determining theimpact of their belief and attitude towards egalitarianism on theirlevel of satisfaction. They hypothesized that supportivecommunications, coupled with troubles talk result in strongerrelationships. The researchers relied on the data sourced from theJapanese General Survey. The survey was conducted in the U.S., but ittook account of the Japanese views regarding the association betweenthe strength of relationships and gender role attitudes. A total ofabout 2130 responses were received from the Japanese citizens.However, only 1458 responses were used in the study since theresearchers were interested in participants whose relationships hadreached the marital status by the time the survey was conducted.About 766 of the subjects were women and 692 were men. The studyindicated that the attitudes that people have about gender rolesaffect the strength of their relationships in different ways,depending on the type gender. For example, a belief in egalitarianismhelps men feel more satisfied in a relationship. The same phenomenonis associated with a negative impact on women. However, effectivecommunication and troubles talk were associated with a positiveimpact on the strength of a relationship and the satisfaction of bothpartners. The article provides a useful insight into the issue of theassociation between gender role attitudes and satisfaction inrelationships involving married couples. The application of therandom sampling approach minimized the risk of bias, thus enhancingthe reliability of the findings. However, the researchers relied onthe data collected in a survey that was conducted between 2000 and2006, which implies that they did not have control over its quality.

Universityof New Hampshire (2016). Relationship abuse. UNH.Retrieved September 26, 2016, from&lthttps://www.unh.edu/sharpp/relationship-abuse&gt

Thiswebsite published an article explaining some of the key factors thatcontribute to cases of abuse in relationships. The authors of thecontent presented an argument that cases of abuse can affect anyrelationship, irrespective of the social as well as the demographicaspects of the individual partners. The website supports the viewthat individuals who abuse their partners are affected by the wrongviews or psychological issues that can be addressed successfully. Thecontent of the website is founded on the opinion of experts, which isconfirmed by the fact that it was published by an institution ofhigher learning and no list of references was provided. A traditionalview of gender roles is among the key factors that increase the riskof abuse in relationships. A rigid view reduces the capacity ofindividuals to see their partners as people who can cross theboundaries put in place by the society regarding what they can andcannot do as men or women. Therefore, abuse occurs as a way of tryingto suppress partners who are trying to engage in activities that arenot assigned by the society to their respective genders. The authorsof the content of the website did not include sources where its ideaswere sourced. However, it is a credible source that indicates therelationship between rigid views about gender roles and incidents ofabuse in romantic relationships.

Communication

Furumo,K. Buxton, M., Pills, E., Giga, K. &amp Furumo, H. (2014).Differences between male and female communications and conflictmanagement styles in virtual teams. Journalof Management and Marketing Research,17, 1-7.

Thedata collected from students at the Niagara University and theUniversity of Hawaii helped the researchers identify similarities anddifferences in communication skills between men and women. Their maintarget was the communication that takes place on the virtualplatforms. The progress in technology has increased efficiency incommunication, but it would be significant to determine whether menand women have equal capabilities to communicate online. Theresearchers hypothesized that women are likely to engage in socialcommunication whenever they use the online platforms. Men, on theother hand, engage in communication that focuses on tasks. Theauthors used the quasi-experiment research design. A total of 62students were recruited from Niagara University and 48 from theUniversity of Hawaii. The tools used to gather data include theLikert –type and ROCI-II scales. The researcher coded the dataduring analysis in order to identify differences between women andmen. In addition, ANOVA statistics were used to compare communicationskills among participants of different genders. The findings of theresearch indicated that the male subjects communicate less on onlineplatforms compared to female participants. In addition, mencommunicated about the tasks at hand as opposed to women who sharedsocial information. Moreover, the communication styles adopted by themale subjects helped them apply dominant conflict managementapproaches, while the female participants were likely to useavoidance or complies strategies. In overall, the content of thearticle provides useful information indicating the major differencesin the way men and women communicate, especially when using theonline platforms. However, participants were used as proxies, whichlimited the credibility of the findings.

Jefferson,L., Bloor, K., Birks, K., Hewitt, C. &amp Bland, M. (2013). Effectsof physician’s gender on communication and consultation length: Asystematic review and meta-analysis. Journalof Health Services Research and Policy,18 (4), 242-248.

Theaim of the authors of this article was to determine the effect of thegender of individual physicians on the communication. The measurementof the length of consultation and patient satisfaction are some ofthe key indicators of the quality of communication between physiciansand their clients. A review of the articles retrieved from credibledatabases (including PsychInfo, Medline, and Cinahl) helped theresearchers compared the influence that gender has on the quality ofcommunication. The main methodology that helped the authorsaccomplish the goal of their study is the literature review. Theirinitial search yielded a total of 6,412 articles, but only 33 of themwere analyzed after consideration inclusion and exclusion criteria.The reliability of the process of data extraction was maintainedusing the guidelines provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. Theheterogeneous nature of the studies that were reviewed forced theauthors to conduct a narrative synthesis only. The outcome of thestudy indicated that a female physician provides qualitycommunication and consultation services compared to their malecounterparts. The study indicated that female physicians engaged in alengthy communication and consultation that lasted about 2.24 minlonger than the male professionals. The researchers concluded thatthe female physicians are better communicators than men, which helpedthem deliver patient-centered care in a more effective way. Thearticle addressed an issue that is rarely considered by otherscholars. Their findings provided an insight into the issue of genderdifferences and their influence on the quality of communication.However, future studies on the same topic should be based on rigorousstatistical methods in order to take account of the clusteringeffect.

Saal,W. (2015). Gender differences in communication styles. StateUniversity of New York.Retrieved September 26, 2016, from&lthttp://employees.oneonta.edu/vomsaaw/w/psy257/handouts/gender_diffs_in_communication.htm&gt

Thecontent of the website indicates differences in terms ofcommunication styles between individuals of dissimilar genders. Theauthors hold that people of different genders have diverse needs,values, and goals. These differences force them to apply dissimilarcommunication styles in order to achieve what they want in life.Understanding gender differences that occur in terms of communicationdetermines the success of relationships and marriages. The authorsapply the literature review approach that helps them analyzecommunication differences between men and women. They source theirinformation from two books that address these differences. One of thekey differences that are emphasized in the web content is the awayindividuals of different genders express their problems. For example,the author holds that women tend to apply communication strategiesthat can help them seek understanding and empathy, while men try touse approaches that give an impression that they intend to offersolutions. These differences can be attributed to the fact that thesense of self is defined through the quality of relationships as wellas feelings in women, but via the ability to achieve specific resultsin men. A failure on the part of any of the partners to understandthe differences can result in conflict. For example, women have ahabit of providing unsolicited advice, which could be interpreted bymen as an attempt to question their competence. This explanationleads to the conclusion that men and women apply differentcommunication styles. The content of the website addresses asignificant social issue that affects relationships on a daily basis.The effectiveness with which partners are able to communicatedetermines the strength of their relationship. However, the authorsof the web content relied on two sources only, which limited theirability to include the viewpoints provided by different scholars.

MentalHealth

Clatworthy,J., Hinds, J. &amp Camic, M. (2013). Gardening as a mental healthintervention: A review. MentalHealth Review Journal,18 (4), 214-225.

Theaim of the study reported in this article was to assess the level ofeffectiveness of gardening approach in the treatment of mentalhealth. The researchers were motivated to determine the effectivenessof gardening methods after learning that therapeutic gardens in theU.K. increased from 45 in the 1980s to over 900 in 2013. They reliedon the findings reported in empirical studies on the same topic. Theauthors used a literature review methodology in their study. Theysearched for a total of 10 empirical studies that reviewed theeffectiveness of the gardening approaches in the treatment ofdifferent mental illnesses among adults in the U.K. Some of thepieces of information that were extracted and synthesized include thetheoretical foundations, study methodology, type of interventions,and their effectiveness. The authors identified that the gardeningapproaches reduce depression and anxiety among adults suffering fromvarious types of mental illness. Participants of the studies thatwere reviewed enjoyed several benefits that included of social,vocational, spiritual, and emotional gains. Although non-of thestudies considered was based on the randomized trial, the consistencyof findings was convincing enough for the authors to recommend thegardening approach for mental health issues. The authors concludedthat gardening is an effective therapeutic method that addressesnumerous symptoms of mental illness. Although the article was basedon a literature review methodology that denied the authors theopportunity to assess the quality of data, it is a useful source thatsheds light into a controversial method used in enhancing the mentalhealth among adults of both genders. The authors cleared thiscontroversy by indicating that gardening brings the aspect of naturethat has been found to enhance the mental health.

Marcus,M. &amp Westra, H. (2012). Mental health literacy in Canadian youngadults: Results of a national survey. CanadianJournal of Community Mental Health,31 (1), 1-15.

Thepurpose of the study reported in the article was to explore the levelof health literacy between young people and adults. The authorsrelied on the data provided by two groups of Canadians. Members ofone grouped were aged 18-24 and the other one was 25-64 years. Thedata gathered from the two groups was used to compare the level ofknowledge that each one of them had regarding mental health andhelp-seeking. Marcus and Westra relied on a survey methodology inorder to accomplish the objective of their study. They recruited atotal of 1,004 Canadians into their study, where 881 of them had anage of between 25 and 64 years while the rest were 24 years andbelow. A random sampling technique was utilized during therecruitment of participants in order to minimize bias. Marcus andWestra collected the data from participants by interviewing them viaphone calls and computer assisted technology. The researchersidentified that there is no significant difference in terms of thelevel of literacy between the old and young generation. The levels ofgeneral knowledge and recognition of the mental health were equal,irrespective of the age and the gender of participants. For example,the youths and adults of both genders were able to establish theassociation between mental health and several conditions, such asschizophrenia and depression. The authors concluded that the youngerpeople have unique needs and views regarding mental health,irrespective of the fact that they have the same knowledge with theolder generation. The article provided a unique insight into theissue of literacy about mental health. Although the study did notidentify differences between the old and the younger generation interms of the level of knowledge, it indicated that youths havespecial needs and views that should be considered for effectivemanagement of mental conditions.

WHO(2016). Mental health. WHO.Retrieved September 26, 2016, from&lthttp://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/genderwomen/en/&gt

Theaim of the web content was to provide a discussion on genderdifferences in the area of mental health. The WHO argues that genderis among the most significant determinants of mental health. Mentalillnesses are quite common in the society, but less than half of themare diagnosed by the health care providers. Most of the scholarsfocus on morbidity and mechanisms through which mental illnessaffects individuals of different genders. However, the WHO emphasizeson the ability of individuals to deal with issues that lead to theoccurrence of mental illnesses. Therefore, gender differences interms of mental health are determined by the coping skills that eachof the affected persons posses. Although the author did not mentionthe method of study applied when writing the content of the website,it is evident that a review of the literature made a significantcontribution to most of the ideas. For example, the authors mentionedthe outcomes of a cohort study that focused on gender differences inthe mental health sector. Most of the ideas that are not accompaniedby citations are contributions made by experts. The outcome of thestudy reported in the web content indicated that men and women havedifferent control and power over the social economic issues that actas the underlying causes of mental health. The power and the abilityof individuals to control their surroundings determine the level oftheir mental health by influencing their degree of exposure andsusceptibility. Women are less powerful, which explains the fact thatfemale members of the society suffer from the mental health issuesmore than their counterpart males. The content of the website isuseful because it provides a unique perspective on the issue ofgender differences in terms of the level of mental health. However,the source of most of the data is not indicated, which might limitthe reliability of the web content. Nevertheless, the website isowned by a reputable institution, which suggests that the content isreliable.

References

Alavi,K., Eftekhar, M. &amp Nadoushan, A. (2015). Comparison of masculineand feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identitydisorder. SexualMedicine,3, 261-268.

BritishSocial Attitudes (2016). Attitudes to gender roles: Change over time.BritishSocial Attitudes.Retrieved September 26, 2016, fromhttp://www.bsa.natcen.ac.uk/latest-report/british-social-attitudes-30/gender-roles/attitudes-to-gender-roles-change-over-time.aspx

CharlesStuart University (2016). Gender roles and gender differences.CharlesStuart University.Retrieved September 26, 2016, fromhttp://web.csulb.edu/~kmacd/361SEX.html

Clatworthy,J., Hinds, J. &amp Camic, M. (2013). Gardening as a mental healthintervention: A review. MentalHealth Review Journal,18 (4), 214-225.

Doyle,M., Rees, M. &amp Titus, L. (2015). Perceptions of same-sexrelationships and marriage as gender role violations: An examinationof gendered expectations (sexism). Journalof Homosexuality,62 (11), 1576-1598.

Fazeli,E., Golmakini, N., Taghipour, A. &amp Shakeri, M. (2015). Therelationship between demographic factors gender role attitudes inwomen referring to Mashhad health care centers in 2014. Journalof Midwifery and Reproductive Health,3 (1), 276-284.

Fenyes,H. (2014). Gender attitudes among higher education students inBorderland Central-Eastern European region called Partium. CEPSJournal,4 (2), 49-70.

Furumo,K. Buxton, M., Pills, E., Giga, K. &amp Furumo, H. (2014).Differences between male and female communications and conflictmanagement styles in virtual teams. Journalof Management and Marketing Research,17, 1-7.

Jahanbakhsh,S., Jomehri, F. &amp Mujembari, A. (2014). The comparison of women’sself confidence in base of gender role. Procedia-Socialand Behavioral Science,191, 2285-2290.

Jefferson,L., Bloor, K., Birks, K., Hewitt, C. &amp Bland, M. (2013). Effectsof physician’s gender on communication and consultation length: Asystematic review and meta-analysis. Journalof Health Services Research and Policy,18 (4), 242-248.

Marcus,M. &amp Westra, H. (2012). Mental health literacy in Canadian youngadults: Results of a national survey. CanadianJournal of Community Mental Health,31 (1), 1-15.

Saal,W. (2015). Gender differences in communication styles. StateUniversity of New York.Retrieved September 26, 2016, fromhttp://employees.oneonta.edu/vomsaaw/w/psy257/handouts/gender_diffs_in_communication.htm

Singh,H., &amp Negi, S. (2016). Gender equality and women empowerment: Aqualitative study on Kinnauri Tribal women in social workprospective. InternationalJournal of Management and Social Sciences,3 (2), 163-181.

Taniguchi,H. &amp Kaufman, G. (2014). Gender role attitudes, troubles talk,and marital satisfaction in Japan. Journalof Social and Personal Relationships,31 (7), 975-994.

Universityof New Hampshire (2016). Relationships abuse. UNH.Retrieved September 26, 2016, fromhttps://www.unh.edu/sharpp/relationship-abuse

U.N.Women (2016). Conducting research, data collection, and analysis.U.S.Women.Retrieved September 26, 2016, fromhttp://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/322-conducting-research-data-collection-and-analysis-.html

Vendrell,R., Capdevila, R., Dalmau, M., Geis, A. &amp Ciller, L. (2014).Descriptive study on gender equity in early childhood education inCatalonia, Spain. InternationalJournal of Humanities and Social Science,4 (7), 279-290.

WHO(2016). Mental health. WHO.Retrieved September 26, 2016, fromhttp://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/genderwomen/en/