Philosophers had interests in various fields, butthere is a pattern that illustrates that what they proposed was basedon the observation of their society. They had different backgrounds,yet their line of thought was almost similar. In this paper, we shallevaluate the work of three philosophers, John Stuart Mill, IrisMurdoch and Marcus Tullius Cicero.Cicero&quotthe defense of injustice.&quotThe difference between wisdomand justice

Wisdomis selecting what is best for the people or the country regardlessthe consequences. One must make a hard decision to secure a territoryfor the good of the majority. Wisdom puts one to glory, that is, theyacquire very high social standing because of the wise choices theymake(Rossiter 55).Justice, on the other hand, is being merciful to the people, andtreating them equally before the law of the land. Justice praises thegood and condemns evil.

How this difference applies to a person and tothe state in expanding resources at the expense of others

Wisdomgives tribute to an individual or state that expands the resources byconquering the weak, while justice would condemn that person orcountry for being unfair, and inconsiderate fortheir actions are wicked before the law of the land (Rossiter 57).

True Law

Accordingto Cicero, true law is universal, and it keeps with dictates ofnature and reason. It does not change but it commands everyone to dotheir roles. It commands that no one should commit a wrongdoing. Thetrue law can neither be repealed nor abolisheditcan only be explained by the people who own and imprisoned by it(Rossiter 60).

JohnStuart Mill &quot the subjection of women.&quot

Benefits of granting womenequal access to educational and occupational opportunities to thesociety

Millbelieved that granting women educational opportunities would not onlylead to greater intellectual development but would also, create abetter relationship between man and wife. They are better connectedat the intellectual level(&quotJohn Stuart Mill: The Subjection of Women&quot).Occupational opportunities, on the other hand, would establish freemarkets for the services women perform thus realizing fair economiccontributions to the society in general.

Why women should be allowed toattend the same schools as men

Millbelieved that men and women had the same intellectual capacities, andwould perform equally under same conditions. They have samecapabilities in the mastery of the same discipline(&quotJohn Stuart Mill: The Subjection of Women&quot).Also, it would give them the opportunity to appreciate each other’sintellectual skills.

Iris Murdoch &quotMorality and Religion.&quotReligion &quotsuits the imagemaking human animal.&quot

Thephrase means that religion has manipulated the human mind by creating“images” they seek to fill a void inside them. Humans attachtheir attitudes towards these images and with time, they appear to bereal. Morality and religion are not always linked according toMurdoch (Burns, 877).

Do you think this aspect humanthought results in a craving for religion?

No,it does not result in craving for religion. Religion originates fromthe desires and beliefs that one has on the existence of supernaturalbeings such as God, hence feeling obligated to obey them and theirteachings.

Why religious belief a strongermotive to do good than is non-religious idealism

Religiousteachings focus on good deeds, but it condemns evil. They also teachmorality, and how to live according to those traditions, hence peoplebecome focused on following those teachings hence empowering them todo good (Burns, 877). Non-religious individual’s acts are out oflogic, and they do not have the guilt in them on the consequences ofeither good and evil.

The difference betweenaesthetic individual, the ethical man, and the religious individualand its application to the Hegelian dialectic

Aestheticindividuals live for a moment and are not committed to anything,while an ethical man focuses on choosing or viewing oneself as a goalthey want to achieve. A religious individual, on the other hand,lives by the virtues of faith and would isolate themselves withoutjustifying their actions to other people (Burns, 879). Hegeliandialectic assumes that rationality and logic are the concepts ofbeing. Therefore, aesthetic individuals are more rational, unlike thereligious people but ethics still dictates behavior in both schoolsof thought.


Burns,Elizabeth. &quotImages of Reality: Iris Murdoch’s Five Ways fromArt to Religion.&quot Religions6.3 (2015): 875-890.

&quotJohnStuart Mill: The Subjection Of Women.&quotConstitution.org.N.p., 2016. Web. 2 Oct. 2016.

Rossiter,Elliot. &quotCicero, Epicurus, And Systemic Injustice.&quotSouthwestPhilosophy Review28.1(2012): 55-61. Web.