EarlyInterventions in ADHD
EarlyInterventions in ADHD
Identificationand expansion of early secondary interventions for attention deficitor hyperactivity disorder among children are necessary. In this case,the comprehensive interventions should focus on the pre-schoolchildren, who are still in progress stage, the period which ADHDindications first appear in most of the children that will ensurethat most of the long-term adverse outcomes that symbolize the courseof ADHD may be avoided. On the other hand, many pieces of literaturehave suggested that there exists a dysfunction in the brainrecompense waterfall particularly in the dopamine system, hence causethe low dopaminergic trait. In connection to this, the primaryobjective of this research is to examine the how early interventionscan reduce conditions of children with ADHD. Also, the paper alsofocuses on the relatively negative or environmental demographics onthe attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the diversepopulation of children. Meta-analysis approaches were used toinvestigate whether early interventions reduce children with ADHD.The results suggested that various children with ADHD exhibited thedeficit in multiple components of attention and social skills thatare not related to the language-learning disorders and weakness ingeneral intellectual inabilities. Similarly, the analysis showed thattimely treatment interventions would reduce attention deficit andsocial skill in ADHD children. The evidence on early interventionthat focuses on the awareness and social skills assist in thereduction of symptoms of children with ADHD.
Initialidentification of ADHD can determine how effective the parents andother caregivers can control the extent of the reactions and symptomsin the children. The challenge with the attention deficit hyperactivedisorder is that it cannot be diagnosed until some age. Theelimination nature of the analysis criteria diminishes the capabilityof the physicians to diagnose it in time. However, when the diagnosisis made timely enough, some interventions can be adopted to reducethe frequency and extent of the symptoms hence leading to improvedchances of handling and management of the condition (Jones et al.,2008). The identification is also met with the challenge of lack ofresearch on how to identify the disease and intervene at the righttime during their preschool years hence reducing the effectiveness ofthe intervention measures adopted in the school context.
Thesymptoms targeted by the intervention include aggression, poor socialskills and literacy skills. When the primary interventions areselected, the changes are observed in the above symptoms (McGoey,Eckert & Dupaul, 2002). Studies indicate that initialinterventions lead to a 17 percent reduction in the level aggressionmanifested in the children. The beginning of the responses alsoresults in an increase in the social interventions. The latter wasobserved at a 21 percent rate. Quickly interventions also indicatedthat there was a 28 percent improvement in the two categories whencombined. Timely interventions have also been instrumental in thedevelopment of the reading and writing skills in the children. On theother hand, timely interventions are said to be a system of servicesthat assist children and toddlers with developmental delays. Theseservices should address the need for the priorities of the child’sfamily.
Eventhough medical prescription can improve symptoms of the disorder,there is no capability of improvement in the academic and otherskills such as social and interaction skills since it only addressesthe pathophysiological causes of the disease and not the managementof the outward and meaningful interactions (DuPaul & Stoner,2014). Medications can control the symptoms, but they cannot help inthe long run administration of the condition. Longer-term managementof the disease is critical in that the situation is bound to affectthe children for the rest of their lives. Non-medical interventionspromise better results and functionality in the society.
Understandingtools that will be used in the management of the condition areimportant from the onset (McGoey, Eckert & Dupaul, 2002).Children tend to like stability in their environment. In most cases,the reaction to an individual intervention tool can be unproductiveif applied to a different child. For instance, one child may react tothe response such as reinforcement of positive behavior differentlyas opposed to another child. A child could be introduced to anactivity such as studying on a timely basis before the development ofthe aversion to the activity. The introduction of such asintervention means that the child will be conditioned to like readingand writing as opposed to when the skills are introduced later.
Theinability of the policy makers to use the non-medical interventionstems from reduced information on what interventions are availablefor the parents and teachers. The family role is often underratedsince the parents are only supposed to maintain the order as per thecommon misconception (Jones et al., 2008). However, parents have animportant role to play in shaping the behavior and reducing thedegeneration of the condition to an unmanageable level.
Someof the interventions that can be used in the reduction of thesymptoms include the development of the highly individualizedprograms. These programs focus on the individual students as opposedto the entire group. Highly individualized programs are customizedbased on the liking and propensities of the child. Therefore, theparents have to be involved in the development of the highlyindividualized programs (McGoey, Eckert & Dupaul, 2002). Thehighly individualized programs tend to rely on the reinforcement ofbehavior. A child has to understand that an individual conduct callsfor the recognition hence he or she will be more likely to adopt. The highly individualized programs also require the alteration of theenvironment both at home and school for them to suit the needs of thechildren with ADHD. The programs also consist of high levels ofinteractions.
Interventionsalso call for the disregard of the symptoms and interventions thatmay be used in the case of normal children. For instance, most of thechildren that start displaying the signs and symptoms of thecondition during their formative years often end up suspended (Joneset al., 2008). This trend is indicative of the inability of theteachers to understand the condition and its symptoms. In some cases,the children end up being suspended. This trend has been detrimentalto the ability of the children to be integrated into their socialsetting.
Interventionsthat are instituted appropriate enough tend to be based on theinsights from the parents. When questioned, parents indicate thattheir children started displaying the symptoms in their preschoolyears (Jones et al., 2008). Consequently, adoption an intervention atthis juncture could be indicative of better outcomes in the socialsettings and following learning experiences. The above assertion isbased on the principles of operant conditioning. Parents and teacherscan develop collaborative relationships that help the children fit inthe society and attain full functionality.
DuPaul,G. J., & Stoner, G. (2014). ADHDin the schools: Assessment and intervention strategies.Guilford Publications.
Jones,K., Daley, D., Hutchings, J., Bywater, T., & Eames, C. (2008).Efficacy of the Incredible Years Programme as an early interventionfor children with conduct problems and ADHD: long‐termfollow‐up. Child:care, health and development, 34(3),380-390.
McGoey,K. E., Eckert, T. L., & Dupaul, G. J. (2002). Early Interventionfor Preschool-Age Children with ADHD A Literature Review. Journalof Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10(1),14-28.