Discussion Paper




The initial question concerns the factors that drive people toprocreate despite the terrible living conditions that exist in manyplaces. The narrator cited DNA as a major determinant for thisphenomenon. Moreover, the video showed the vital role played bysexual reproduction in ensuring diversity in genetic makeup.Nevertheless, this explanation could not account for the thinkingthat led humans into making such decisions.

Berger (2015) discussed three levels and six stages of moralreasoning. The first section placed emphasis on acquiring rewards andavoiding punishments. During the initial stage, the most significantfactor is obeying the established authority while pursuingself-interest. Subsequently, an individual would try to take care oftheir needs. Hence, performing fine deeds to others is intended tosolicit reciprocal action. The second segment is a community-centeredlevel that emphasizes the value of societal rules. In this respect,proper behavior pleases other people and contributes to socialapproval (Berger, 2015). In stage four, an individual has to be adutiful citizen and obey general laws even when law enforcementagencies are not available.

The third level is focused on ideals and moral principles. Inparticular, individuals are motivated to obey social rules since theyresult in the greatest benefit for everyone. Such decrees are alsoestablished by mutual agreement. Nevertheless, the law could bedisobeyed under certain circumstances. For example, the rules wouldbecome defunct if they were adjudged as destructive. One party couldalso decide to disregard the laws and hence the contract becomes “nolonger binding” (Berger, 2015, p. 450). During the last stage,general universal principles are used to determine right or wrongconduct. Consequently, individual reflection contributes to theformation of ethical values. In this regard, disadvantagedcommunities choose to bear children because they believe that it isthe right thing to do.


Berger, K. (2015). The developing person through childhood andadolescence (10th ed.). New York, NY: WorthPublishers.