DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENTS
According to medicalpractitioners and authors around the world, diabetes is a complexcollection of many diseases which together affect the ability of thebody to either produce or use insulin. Insulin is a hormone secretedby the pancreas, which also sends it to the bloodstream. As insulincirculates into the blood stream, it also assists blood sugar toenter the various cells of the body. Since insulin is responsible forlowering the amount of sugar in the blood system in the case, it goeshigher than the average level (Chiang et al., 2014). The levelof blood sugar decreases with a decrease in the secretion of insulin.People with diabetes suffer hyperglycemia.
The main risk factors for getting diabetes include having diabeticfamily members, obesity, extremely high levels of triglycerides,abnormal production of glucose by the liver and significantly lowlevels of cholesterol in the body (Tao, Shi & Zhao, 2015).Environmental factors like toxins and foods have also been said tocause diabetes although the extent of their role is not determined.Diabetic people often exhibit the following symptoms: excessivethirst, fatigue, hunger, an increase in urine output, occasionalnumbness of the toes and feet, slow healing of wounds as well as skininfections among others. Its effects on the body are such as damagedblood vessels, stomach problems, excessive protein in the urine,stroke, susceptibility to yeast infections, and heart disease.
There are four typesof diabetes namely type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenilediabetes. In Type 1 diabetes or juvenile diabetes, the patient’simmune system attacks the cells that are responsible for producinginsulin in the pancreas. Once they affect the cells, theyconsequently interfere with their ability to secrete insulin.According to (Marek-Trzonkowska et al., 2012), type 1 diabetesis detectable among children, and if they are to live, they have totake in insulin. Type 2 diabetic individuals suffer insulinresistance. For the management of blood glucose levels, the pancreasis forced to produce exceptionally higher levels of insulin. In thelong run, the pancreas cells many burn themselves due to overwork. Inthe case of gestational diabetes, a patient experiences high bloodsugar during pregnancy (Levy, 2011).
The treatment ofdiabetes solely depends on the category of diabetes. The treatment oftype 1 diabetes mainly relies on the regular administration ofinsulin, accompanied with exercise and a special diet. Type 2diabetes is treated using tablets, rarely using insulin injectionsand exercise. Gestational diabetes is treated through engagement inexercise and diet. It resolves after childbirth (Chiang et al.,2014).
Type 1 diabetesinvolves a situation where the body’s immune system is activated toattack the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. The reason forthe auto-immune reaction is however not known. With the damagedpancreatic cells, the blood glucose cannot be moved around the body.Diabetes type 1 is believed to be mainly inherited from previousfamily members who suffered the disease ((Marek-Trzonkowska etal., 2012). Statistics show that if ta lose relative suffers type1 diabetes, one has a 6% chance to contract the same illness. Thetypical manifestations of type 1 diabetes are excessive thirst,weight loss, blurred vision, mood swings, headache, slow healing ofwounds, feeling dizzy, fatigue and passing more urine than normal.
Once infected,diabetes cannot be managed. However, the treatment aims at keepingthe blood sugar levels normal as well as controlling the severity ofthe symptoms. Additionally, the treatment prevents the development ofhealth problems at later stages of their lives. Immediately aftertype 1 diabetes diagnosis, they are referred to a health center forspecialist treatment and closer monitoring of the advancement of thecondition (Chiang et al., 2014). Type 1 diabetes is onlymanageable with constant insulin injections. Before each dose, thelabel on the insulin should be explicitly confirmed. The hands of thenurse should be hygienic. Excluding insulin glargine andrapid-and-short acting insulin, the pen should be rolled gently onthe palms to re-suspend the insulin. Immediately after the insulin isdrawn into the syringe, the nurse should check for any bubbles.
After beingdiagnosed with diabetes type 1, a patient should avoid taking sugaryjuices and drinks. This is aimed at ensuring that blood sugar levelsare not higher than normal. Instead, the patient should drinksugar-free drinks and a lot of water (Levy, 2011). Also, dieticiansadvise that diabetic patients should avoid packed foods labeled“suitable for diabetes” or diabetic” since in some cases theycontain the same amounts of cholesterol and sugar as other foods. Inthe course of their meals, they should incorporate carbohydrates toraise the blood glucose level. Fruits and vegetables should be fed onin abundance. The impacts of type 1 diabetes include nerve damage,kidney damage, and the patient may be prone to heart and blood vesseldisease, foot damage and eye damage (Fuhrman, 2013).
In conclusion,diabetes is a collection of many diseases which inhibit the secretionand use of insulin. The patients of any of the four main types ofdiabetes type 1, type 2, gestational and juvenile diabetes showalmost similar symptoms. The symptoms include exhaustion, excessiveurine, and slow restorative of wounds, excessive thirst and skininfections. Despite the fact that diabetes is not curable, insulin ismainly administered to control the severity of the symptoms. Of allthe types, type 2 is the most common ((Fuhrman, 2013 (Chiang etal., 2014).
Marek-Trzonkowska, N., Myśliwiec, M., Dobyszuk, A., Grabowska, M.,Techmańska, I., Juścińska, J., & Myśliwska, J. (2012).Administration of CD4+ CD25highCD127− regulatory T cells preservesβ-cell function in type 1 diabetes in children. Diabetes care,35(9), 1817-1820.
Levy, D. (2011). Type 1 diabetes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Top of Form
Chiang, J. L., Kirkman, M. S., Laffel, L. M., & Peters, A. L.(2014). Type 1 diabetes through the life span: a position statementof the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes care, 37(7),2034-2054.
Fuhrman, J. (2013). The end of diabetes: The eat to live plan toprevent and reverse diabetes.
Tao, Z., Shi, A., & Zhao, J. (2015). Epidemiological perspectivesof diabetes. Cell biochemistry and biophysics, 73(1),181-185.
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