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WhyWe have too Few Woman Leaders

Theexperts, who exams the characteristics of male and female management,cannot come to a consensus still. Some believe that successfulleadership – the inheritance of men, women can adjust to their styleof leadership only. The other suggests that in the process ofbusiness development, women’s management style shows manydifferences. The opinion that a woman cannot be a good leader, is astereotype in our society. Women who succeed in own business ormanaged to create a successful company and a great team, continue toprove the opposite. Consequently, if women are not present among thepolitical and business elite, the reason must be rooted in the womenthemselves, obviously – in their inability or unwillingness to takeappropriate place in these areas. Gender inequality persists afterthe introduction of the constitutional provisions that declare genderequality. The government and concerned stakeholders should createequal career opportunities for women by offering proper high schooland college education and enacting policies to promote equality inworkplaces because this will bring about economic, cultural, socialand political improvement in their status.

“Wehave a difficult problem between professional success and personalfulfillment”, Sheryl Sandberg. The society makes such an attitudetowards women, that targets them for priority fulfillment of familyresponsibilities, strengthening the traditional role of mothers.Theworld practice shows that the increase of women`s representation inthe highest legislative body is caused by the existence of laws whichregulating the representation of the sexes in the lists ofcandidates. For example, in the Scandinavian countries, the quota setby the government offices, but in England and Germany, the quotas setby the party, in Italy is required alternate candidates – men andwomen, in the party lists.

Nowadays,discussion of the Gender Strategy aimed at creating conditions forsustainable development and human potential, which impliesintegration of a gender component in all areas of public life – inpolitics, economics and culture. Such policy paper should suggest theelimination of the social sex asymmetry, which exists in the societystill. The necessity of the adoption of the Gender Strategy as statepolicy directions is due to the complexity of solving social oreconomic problems and to the activation of all social forces. Thisimplies a further increase of women’s role in society and theelimination of existing discriminatory gender asymmetries in suchsphere as economic resources, property, and distribution of domesticwork.

Itis obvious that the main condition for equality is economicindependence for women and men, namely, independent income. For theimplementation of the gender, it is important to provide a reductionof differences in earnings between men and women, especially in theirwages and to achieve equal rights and opportunities for women`saccess to economic resources, property, income, jobs, education,budget funds, loans. More than that, the aim is to create conditionsfor the effective connection between the parent or professionalfunction and to solve the problem of free choice.

Theeducational question is an important point in the success of thegender policy. Especially important is the introduction ofgender-oriented education – the inclusion of gender courses inthematic plans of educational institutions at all levels, as well asrefresher courses, a training program for managers and specialists ofall ranks. Additionally, the challenge in promoting women to seniorcivil service positions focuses on the training and retraining ofcivil servants, the introduction of some special courses aboutwomen`s issues in the public service, training of women leaders, theorganization of various international women`s symposiums,conferences, and “round tables”.

Thereare some specific features of female management, which is moreproductive:

-Women pay special attention to the moral and psychological climate inthe team: actively trying to create a favorable atmosphere for allsubordinates – encourage them to participate in the affairs, sharepower and information, encourage the full disclosure of abilities inthe workplace. Women have an ability to instructions, teachings, anddoctrine.

-Women leaders are considering a wider range of possible solutions andchoose the punishment for subordinates.

-During the conflict, women deeply delve into the essence of theproblem, analyze the causes.

-Women combine and change the social roles quickly – manager, businesswoman, on the other – wife, daughter, mother.

-In the context of risk, women-leaders choose the most cautiousstrategy of decision-making. They need more time to sort out, butthis solution is balanced and prudent.

-Women leaders are supporters of strict controls, provide collectivedecision-making within their teams. With subordinates behaveflexibly, combine intuition and diplomacy. In difficult situations,they make their strategy on the high motivation of employees.

-Women managers work creatively. They take a decision due to theirfeelings, intuition, and “female” logic (Worell 315).

Womenmanagers compete with male managers through implementing features offemale traits and qualities, such as:

-High educational potential.

-Woman`s intuition.

-The scale of thinking, namely, the women’s ability to think aboutseveral matters simultaneously.

-A large organization, commitment, and consistency.

-Sociability. They quickly adapt to changing conditions.

-Responsibility is the nature of women leaders because they aremothers.

-Femininity, charm, cunning – natural features which women leaders useto address complex issues.

-Women leaders are more democratic and willingness to cooperate(Worell 233)

Thus,women are very important in politics, because they are changing theworld around objectively. Today it is clear that the fault of womenin the political process, the lack of full and parity participationof women in decision-making does not allow to find effective ways tosolve social problems, use women`s social experience and the abilityof coordination different interests. The gender imbalance in powerstructures has a negative impact on the quality of laws. Thus, theeconomic legislation, as tax, customs, monetary – focused on thecreation the more favorable conditions for the “male” sectors ofthe economy than the “female” industries mainly. Meanwhile, thewomen with their specific social experiences can balance the power,to make it more modern.

Thesexism in the educational system is well researched and documented.First, many studies show that teachers, educators, administratorsrelate to boys and girls in a manner that reflects their owntraditional sex-role stereotypes. Secondly, textbooks, tests, texts,and advertising include gender bias. For example, primers andeducational materials often show women and men, who engaged intraditional activities or professions. More than that, the languagesupports and creates gender stereotypes. The names of manyhigh-status professions only used the masculine gender, masculinepronouns: manager, businessman, psychologist, professor, lawyer. Theterm “business woman”, which refer to a woman in business hasspecial connotations in our culture sometimes. In addition, thetraditional literature shows girls and women as incompetent, timid,unprotected and unable to take effective action for their needs.Currently, many countries in Europe and America held a program toneutralize gender stereotypes, starting with kindergarten and school.For example, the program of the Ministry of Education in Norwayincludes leadership training for girls and training of caring aboutothers for boys. Developing countries, by contrast, go on the way ofsupport the gender stereotypes and gender role specialization. Third,the administrative hierarchy reflects the sex-role biases also. Whilemost educators – women, the percentage of women decreases in seniorpositions in the administration with the levels of the educationalsystem (Worell 265). The most unfavorable for a career is a situationwhen a woman does not complete her education and interrupts hercareer because of the family. Her professional interests are notstable yet, and a long break in professional activity leads to thefact that it is difficult for a woman to return to the professionalfield or continue an interrupted education. No matter what the sphereof the woman chooses, the conflict between home and career have asignificant impact on a career development. However, there is anunexpected conclusion in the works of researchers about breaking theusual understanding of women leaders: achieving high business status,women do not sacrifice family because of the career. Namely, amongthe modern women (mostly managers) the proportion of married andmothers is high.

Nowadays,in many countries, more and more women occupy a strong position inthe business, led the corporations, companies, go into politics.However, the phenomenon of the involving the women in management isstill unusual. There are two groups of factors which prevent thechoice of professional career: internal and external. Theseinfluences on the career choices of women due to the context ofgender bias. To the external factors which connect environmentalissues as, economic, social, educational and political, concernsgender socialization and institutional sexism. There are othersfactors as, parents, peers, partners and husbands, teachers, mentors,which demonstrate the influence of the role models, support, andpromotion or inhibition.

Finally,if a business women are taking new positions in management, there isnecessary professionalism and psychological readiness already, andthis may contribute to the conditions for acceleration of theadaptation and advancement of women leaders. These includesocio-economic and political transformations that promoteadministrative activity:

1)Special programs of training, retraining and advanced training ofwomen leaders

2)Support activities of women`s non-governmental organizations

3)Monitoring of compliance with legislation about the rights andguarantees of women and others.

Theseall above proves, at least, that it is a little information about thefeatures of the women`s management and people are prone tostereotypes in the perception of women in management. The resultsforced to reconsider some traditional notions about the features ofthe female control. It is obvious that the best manager of the newgeneration can listen, motivate and support employees. Namely a groupof people who have tremendous advantages in the implementation of thenew approach to management – are women. The next ten years willensure that a woman – not a worse manager than a man, and able toachieve their goals.


Worell,J. (2001). Encyclopedia of women and gender: sex similarities anddifferences and the impact of society on

Sandberg,S. “Why we have too few women leaders”. TEDWomen,

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Beginningwith the dawn of cinematography, filmmaking was perceived as acollective process generating an elaborate media product by effortsof multiple departments and specialists. However, the auteur theorywhich emerged among French film critics in the 1950s moves featurefilms to the conception of the director’s ‘personal’authorship: a director with the unique vision stands behind eachmotion picture, endowing it with its distinctive traits and guidingproduction through all stages from the screenplay to completion(Tregde, 2013). Francois Truffaut, a critic and then a director ofthe French New Wave cinematography, envisioned a true auteur as afilmmaker who puts his artistic vision and personality into his workand expresses his views and emotions in each film he creates.Thereby, both Francois Truffaut and Alfred Hitchcock were among thefirst distinct auteurs in cinematography, each of then reflecting hisindividual vision in multiple aspects of film production includingtechnical aspects, lighting, mise-en-scene, characters, style andmany more. Truffaut’s The400 Blowsand Hitchcock’s Psychoarebrilliant specimens of the director’s special style in productionof the film language through the use of camera, mise-en-scene, music,and plot.

Truffaut’sfirst cinematographic semi-autobiographical work, The400 Blows,became the seminal one both in his career as a director and in theNew Wave cinema in France. The film is deeply emotional and close tomany viewers as it provides an artful insight into problems and joysexperienced by a schoolboy who seeks to escape from his family’sneglect and his strict and demanding schoolteacher. Overall, thisfilm has been frequently perceived as a skillful meditationaspirations and disappointments of youth, which makes it familiar andclose to many people, if not all. However, except the deeply touchingnarrative, Truffaut’s cinematographic style makes the film hishallmark and proves his talent as an auteur. For instance, thetypical camera use patterns emerge in the movie: Truffaut is afrequent user of panning shots creating the sense of presence withinthe shot. That is, camera and its movements/actions are not concealedin the film but rather shown directly, hence, the viewer is involvedin the reality of the film narrative. For instance, Truffaut’sdistinctive camera work is reflected in the sequence where studentsare jogging led by their gym teacher along the city streets. Thecamera follows the group from above, sweeping gradually into the air.In this and in other scenes, camera position is not the one thatwould copy the viewer’s angle in real life, instead, such distancedshots are artificial in a positive sense, because it does notdistance the viewer from the film reality and only provides a broaderview of it.

Atthe same time, in terms of stylistic traits, mise-en-scene andcharacters, Truffaut seems to favor realism in portrayal. The film’smaterial reality, settings and actions of the characters are freefrom glamorous traits of the classical Hollywood and idealizinggloss. Instead, the director focuses on emotional and experientialcontent of the film, emphasizing it through camera work, framemanagement and actors’ play. In addition, a significant trait ofthe screenplay is that the dialogues emerging in the film narrativeare mostly trivial and pointless, whereas Truffaut focuses onrecording and tracking Antoine throughout his ups and downs.

AlfredHitchcock, in turn, made a powerful statement of his auteur style inPsycho(1960). The film is based on a thrilling narrative of crime, mysticaldisappearance and confrontation with the psychopathic murderer indisguise. Hitchcock’s cinematic language is clearlydistinguishable: one could not fail to recognize his management ofmise-en-scene, development of suspense, plot, hallmark characterprototypes, camera angles and other special traits. While thrillerwas probably the director’s favorite genre, the powerful effect ofthis genre was created with help of multiple devices contributing tosuspense and the film’s sinister atmosphere. For instance, thecharacters know less than Hitchcock lets the viewer know. At the sametime, Hitchcock makes use of music score to build up suspense (it isobvious from numerous scenes in the Bates’ motel). Here, it shouldbe noted that the use of music as an active expressive tool istypical for Truffaut’s authorial style, yet the latter uses musicrather to enhance emotional experience of the viewer.

Psychoillustrates Hitchcock’s camera used manner in a rather clear way:the director’s style is dominated by varying camera angles andcombination of shots. For instance, the murder scene in the showerliterally blurs the line between the mise-en-scene and the montagedshots, whereas the sequence is extremely dynamic and amplified bythrilling music. At the same time, the authorial theme in camera workis use of rather subjective or – alternatively – omniscient andvoyeuristic angles and frames. A good example is the sequence whensuspense is built up with camera lingering on the door leading toNorman’s mother bedroom. Moreover, elaborateness of the plot isachieved through the themes of hidden identities, disguise, strongfemale characters and weaker male characters. Guilt and innocence areambiguous in Hitchcock’s plot: when the mystery of the motel isrevealed, the sinister air of the murders is debunked, shifting tocold and rational explanations of the psychiatrist.

Inconclusion, one should say that both Truffaut and Hitchcock turnedout to be among the pioneers of the new ‘signature’ cinema andsucceeded in endowing the film with the distinctive authorialidentity. Although these films might seem rather trivial to themodern viewer spoilt by tons of cinematographic products anddeveloped technologies, viewing these films from the perspective oftheir time makes them unique and unseen in terms of non-traditionalindividualized approach. Hitchcock and Truffaut, in turn, are skilledand creative auteurs as it is envisioned by the auteur theory.


Tregde,David. &quotA Case Study on Film Authorship: Exploring theTheoretical and Practical Sides in Film Production.&quot&nbspElonJournal of Undergraduate Research in Communications&nbsp4.2(2013). &lt October 6, 2016)

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FowlingScene – Tomb of Nebamun (c.1350 BCE)

TheFowling Scene,one of the fresco paintings discovered in the Tomb of Nebamun,belongs to the best visual art pieces dating back to the period ofthe New Kingdom and preserved till modern days. This piece of muralart was created approximately in 1350 BCE in the tomb of ahigh-ranking official Nebamun and portrays a leisure scene from hisand his family’s life. Despite its age, the mural is a brilliantwork of visual art incorporating a number of visual elements andbased on a number of clearly defined visual art principles.

Thevisual elements which are clearly identifiable in TheFowling Sceneinclude line, space, color and shape (as this art piece istwo-dimensional). The composition is literally filled with differenttypes of lines defining objects, creating texture and balancing thespace. As the scene is rather rich in objects and elements, there arevarious types of descriptive lines including contours of the humanfigures (Nebamun, his wife and his daughter), vegetation, birds, fishetc. In this composition, one can notice an especially remarkableinstance of descriptive lines in the depiction of fish belowNebamun’s boat: artful lines not only create texture of water butalso produce detailed scales in fish, making it look more elaborateand natural. At the same time, descriptive lines are seen inNebamun’s face, outfit and necklace, just as in his daughter’sand wife’s jewelry and headgear. As the painting is extremelyelaborate, implied lines are used to create depth of birds’depiction (e.g., value changes in their wings) and texture of thecat’s fur. Overall, clearly defined and straight lines dominate thedesign of the picture, suggesting stability, immutability and order,though curved lines add to its diversity (Lloyd 278).

Spaceand the way it is organized are another interesting element of TheFowling Scene.Particularly, the picture is very dense in terms of positive spacethat is, positive space is dispersed all over the frame, withnegative space being visible only in fragments and in the top rightcorner where the hieroglyphic inscriptions are made. Shape of thepainting is flat and rather obscure in height and width, as theartwork was originally a part of a large mural ensemble and is nowdisplayed as a plate with ragged edges.

Finally,color is probably the most interesting element in the fresco as thelatter is rather versatile and colorful despite its age. Overall thepicture is dominated by the clear thin contour lines – black andterracotta. Hues dominating the composition is predominantly warmwith an exception of mild blue (of high value) used for water, birdsand vegetation on the left. At the same time, Nebamun’s body ispainted in traditional high-intensity terracotta, while otherelements of the composition are characterized by colors of lowerintensity.

Consideringfour principles of art reflected in this painting, one coulddistinguish proportion, emphasis, variety and movement. Proportion isapplied in terms of sizes of the composition elements and theirrelations with each other. For instance, the significance ofNebamun’s figure is stressed through exaggeration of its size incomparison to those of Hatshepsut and Nebamun’s daughter. Thefigure literally dominates the composition through proportion.Emphasis and contrast are also expressed brightly in TheFowling Scene:the composition is clearly divided into ‘dimensions’ of water andair with the contrast being emphasized with help of the boat and astraight black line defining water (apparently, a river). There iscontrast between the fish and the birds, between the huge brightfigure if Nebamun and a small duller figure of his daughter sittingon the boat. Variety, in turn, is one of the key design themes inthis composition: the painting is marked by the splendid variety ofplant and animal species and shapes, from the cat (probably a sacredsymbol) to various butterflies hovering here and there in the image.The birds are also diverse and quite accurate in terms of depiction.At the same time, there is diversity in colors, shades and values inthe picture. Movement is the fourth principle applied in TheFowling Scene:the lines and arrangement of objects makes the composition flow fromright to left. The direction of Nebamun’s boat, his figure facingthe flock of birds, the lines directing the flight of the birds andother elements create the sense of movement which stays stable evendespite the presence of many other objects scattered all around thecomposition.


Lloyd,Alan B. AncientEgypt: State and Society.Oxford University Press, 2014.