Thechild of focus for this assessment is aged five years. He is a male,Hispanic child.Appearance
Thekid measures 40 inches tall and weighs 46 pounds. He wears blue, jeantrousers, a white, T-shirt, and black sandals. The sandals, however,are mismatched — the right foot in the left shoe, and the left footon the right shoe. The clothes he is wearing, which he reportedlychanged 6 hours ago, are soaked in mud after an adventurous play withother children in the neighborhood. The jeans, which he reportswearing for the first time after his mother bought him last night fora birthday gift, is also torn between his legs.
Thechild actively engages in complex play, characterized by drama,outdoor adventure, and fantasy. Just a while ago, the boy was spottedwith other youngsters in the neighborhood pretend-playing the role ofa father.
Despitethe fact that his parents have bought her several toys to keep himindoors and around the compound, the boy prefers to be in the companyof his neighborhood friends to playing with the toys on his own.While he still finds the toys to be enjoyable, he will only enjoythem very much while doing it with friends. He can be seen to be incontrol of his toys and finding it hard to share his special toys,but he would share them, at least. His mother complains he now has atendency of dismantling his toys and then attempt to mend them. Indoing so, he has spoiled many of his toys.
Recently,I watched him play football with friends with more or less the sameage. Like others, he had a difficult time observing the rules. Forinstance, when penalized for foul play, he would complain and accuseothers of being unfair. Nevertheless, he seemed to be wellcoordinated in his movement, attempting to show off the new dribblingskills. I had also spotted the boy doing some jump rope and evenbalancing on one foot for a relatively long period. The boy alsofinds it easy to climb the staircases without requiring any form ofassistance. Typically, the boy is active and is never still, forinstance, he would be seen squirming and wriggling during TV time.
Onthe overall, the boy exhibits a desirable level of development of thefine motor skills that enables him to act independently in tasks suchas brushing teeth, tying the shoelaces, buttoning and zipping. He canalso assist himself with toileting and even taking a bath. While hemay not do them perfectly, he enjoys practicing, at least. CognitiveDevelopment
Theattention span of the child has increased significantly and can beseen to pay attention for long. For instance, he already has amastery of time concepts such as today, yesterday, tomorrow. He alsorecognizes seasons, as well as letters and words. For instance, heknows the number plate of his father’s car off-head and can readthe “Stop” road sign across the road. During TV time, the boy isalso accredited to recognize the letters appearing on the screens andeven tries to pronounce them. While he does not get all thepronunciations right, his trial is fairly good.
Theboy quickly gets along with friends and people because he canunderstand the diverse viewpoints of the people around him. Forinstance, when he asked for a ride on his friend’s new bicycle andwas turned down, he still cheered her as he rode. When she fell over,he sympathized and even helped her out. Similarly, he does not go outto play in the rain because his parents do not approve that.
Emotionaland Social Development
Basedon how he carries out himself, the boy can be seen to express hisfeelings relatively well, although he sometimes needs help inidentifying and talking about troubling emotions and frustrationsabout life experiences. On the overall, the boy exhibited a bettercontrol of his feelings, with minimal unexpected sadness and angeroutbursts. The boy also exercised patience and was open to reason thepeople around him.
Althoughhe loves to be independent, such as preferring to enjoy making hisbed on his own, he still needs love and attention. For instance, helearned to ride a bicycle only recently and asked his mother toaccompany him for bike racing. He was frustrated when his parentsturned down his requests. He simply likes some attention, and he isproud of his achievements.
Theboy also reveals some understanding of the world around him, some ofcreates some fears within him. For example, the child has dreadsabout walking in the dark, as his father reports, has a lot to dowith ghost fables that his grandmother narrates to him. He is alsowary about climbing trees or raised surfaces because he fell from astool recently. These fears are part of every child’s life. Peoplesee monsters in their dreams or even think about them after beingtold childhood stories. Therefore, there is nothing abnormal abouthim experiencing fright at his age.
Theboy also talks a lot, even when he is alone in the room. His speechesare made of full and complex sentences, and child can even engage inconversations with adults, although he cannot describe complex ideasand events. The child can comprehend riddles and jokes, and findstoilet humor to be particularly funny. He is mastering thevocabularies each day and enjoying them.
Doesthe child meet the milestones and stages in the physical, cognitive,and social/ emotional development?
Oneof the pertinent principles for assessing the development process ofa child is Erikson`s stages of psychosocial development. This theoryposits that the process of human development comprises of eightsystematic steps in which every person must pass through, startingfrom infancy to adulthood. According to this model, developmentstarts from birth, but it is largely influenced by the interveningcultural and ecological conditions. Every stage comprises of severalchallenges and crises, which every individual must overcome toproceed to the next level successfully. If one fails to explore astage successfully, he/ she is likely to have challenges in thefuture (Erikson& Joan, 2014).
Thetheory asserts that kids between 5 years exhibit cognitive andbehavioral traits that conform to the preschool stage. This groupcomprises of children aged between four and five years. The virtuethat drives the actions of the subjects in this group is purpose,while psychosocial crisis they are disposed to is initiative vs.guilt. Because of the crisis inherent to their stage, they strugglewith the question such as “Isit okay for me to do, move, and act?”, while their physicalactivities entail exploring the world such by learning newvocabularies, making art and using tools. Moreover,the children at this stage enjoy close relation with family membersand close friends within the neighborhood. The aspects of theinitiative vs. guilt create the allowance to have quality andinformed decision-making, and they can plan and execute tasks just tokeep him actively engaged with the environment. In this stage, thechild learns to master the nature of the intervening environmentalconditions such as the fundamental principles of gravity, andlearning to speak, count, zip and tie. In this stage, children cannow complete their actions to suit the purpose of interest, but theyare sensitive about guilt. Typically, they may be overly guilty whenan initiative fails to yield desirable results (Erikson& Joan, 2014).
Tohave reached this stage, the child must have explored the earlychildhood stage, which comprises of children aged between 2 and4years. The youngsters in the early childhood stage have the virtueof will and experience the psychosocial crisis of autonomy vs. shameand doubt. They have a significant relationship with parents and,because of their stage crisis, they ask themselves the questions such“Is it okay to be me?” Children at this stage learn to performbasic things such as toilet training and clothing themselves (Erikson& Joan, 2014).
Inthis regard, nothing is unusual or off development about the boybecause he exhibits various traits of the stage that correspond tohis age. The kid’s weight and height is normal. According to Crain(2012),a child aged 5 years old has an average height of 40 inches andweight of 46 pounds, which corresponds to the child’s physicalappearance.
Basedon Erikson`s stages of psychosocialdevelopment, the fact that he has hisclothes are torn or soaked in mud points to his adventurous natureassociated with his stage. More, the fact that he prefers to playwith friends is also a normal part of the development process.Because of the nature of the stage he is in, it is also normal forthe boy to show off a well-coordinated body movement, includingdribbling, balancing on one foot and even dance. Although hemay love to be independent, such as preferring to enjoy making hisbed on his own, he will still need love and attention.It is also normal for the boy to exhibit an understanding of theworld around him, and even develop some fears. For example, the childcan have fears of walking in the dark alone because of the stories hehas come across. The boy can also be wary about climbing trees orraised surfaces because having fallen before. Literacy is skills arealso expected, and these are particularly crucial because it showsthe child is ready and faring well during preschool.Typically, it is expected for the child to master the nature of theintervening environmental conditions such as the natural principlesof gravity, and learning to speak, count, zip and tie. At this stage,children can now complete their actions to suit the purpose ofinterest, but they are sensitive about guilt.
Crain,W. (2012). Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications (6thed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc
Erikson,E. & Joan M. (2014) TheLife Cycle Completed: Extended Version.New York: W. W. Norton