Asthma Asthma




Asthmacan be understood as long-term or chronic lung diseases that arecharacterized by the inflammation and narrowing of the airwaysleading to a continuous period of coughing, shortness of breath,chest tightness and wheezing such changes takes place in the earlymorning or late in the night. The disease is dominant among people ofall ages, and scientific studies show that it majorly starts duringtender years when children are still undergoing development. Thispaper discusses the pathophysiological process connected with eitherchronic asthma or acute asthma exacerbation alongside an explanationof diagnosis and treatment and finally presents mind maps for the twoasthma types.

PathophysiologicalMechanism of Chronic Asthma

Airlinehyperresponsiveness is always related to pronouncedbronchoconstrictor reaction to a broad range of stimuli making itprominent, but it is not a unique feature of asthma. The extentwhereby hyperresponsiveness can be considered and defined byutilizing contractile responses to problems with methacholine relateswith the medical severity of asthma (Choi,2011).Within the body, there are various mechanisms that impact airlinehyperresponsiveness and these include physical modifications,soreness, and improper working of neuroregulation. Particularly,inflammation is regarded as the primary element that can be employedto determine the extent of airway hyperresponsiveness, which can bemanaged administering a treatment to lessen irritation, hence helpingto regulate chronic asthma(Choi, 2011).

PathophysiologicalMechanism of Acute Asthma Exacerbation

Airwaytransformation is exhibited in an individual with asthma, and it isassociated with air movement restriction which in most situations canonly be partly reversible. Similarly, there are changes that can takeplace regarding structures within the airway such anatomical changesresult in the loss of lung functions that cannot be corrected by theavailable therapy. Modification of the airway entails an activationof some of the structural cells, which is followed by permanentalteration within the airway and consequently airflow impediment andresponsiveness that makes the patient less responsive to therapy. Thephysical adjustment is linked with the following: airline smoothmuscle hypertrophy, sub-basement membrane, dilation among others. The persistent nature of the diseases can be understood through theprocedure of renovation and its regulation they are also responsiblefor the limitation to a therapeutic response(Gelb &amp Nadel, 2015).

HowGender Affect Pathophysiology of Chronic Asthma

Accordingto the study that has been carried out in the past, it has beenproven that childhood asthma is more pronounced among boys ascompared to girl child though it has not been explicitly documentedwhy there is such kind of disparity at that age. Despite that, someexperts tried to formulate some explanation why that happens, and itwas claimed that the airway of a young male child is relativelynarrower as compared to that of a female child (Gelb&amp Nadel, 2015).As a result, that condition in young male child contributes to thepronounced risk of wheezing especially when they are under attack ofviral infections or cold. As they continue to advance in age untilthey are about 20 years old, research shows that the ratio of asthmaprevalence is approximately the same for male and female. It issuggested that at the age of 40 years there is a gap that emerges andmore female are found to be more vulnerable to asthma, and thenumbers of those who suffer from asthma surpass that of the male(Gelb&amp Nadel, 2015).

HowGender Affect Pathophysiology of Acute Asthma Exacerbation

Thereis a big variation in the airway caliber in male and female and alsothe lung function. As a result, the adult male has more advantagesince female have narrowed airway caliber resulting in reversedasthma prevalence immediately after puberty. That scenario happens tofemale according to the principle that suggest that airway resistanceis mathematically inversely proportionate to the power four of airwaydiameter and as a result when the airway caliber is small there is anincrease in airway resistance. Additionally, in females, there is anaccumulation of CO2that takes place in the blood due to small airway caliberirrespective of whether the airflow barrier is severe or otherwise(Gelb&amp Nadel, 2015).

Diagnosisand Treatment

Asthmain both male and female can be diagnosed depending on the followingfactors: based on medical records, family background, a physicalexamination and finally a test result. Similarly, it is fundamentalto assess the severity of asthma to determine whether it is severe,mild, moderate or intermittent so as to help determine the type oftreatment to administer by the physician. Furthermore, treatment aidin the control of symptoms since there is no remedy for asthma andthe best medication is through an inhaler, short-acting relieverinhalers, preventer inhalers, and joined preventer and long-actingreliever inhalers(Ference et al., 2015).



Global, affecting over 300 million people, high prevalence in low/middle-income nations, affects all ages, cause 250,000 deaths annually

ind Map for Chronic Asthma


Short-acting inhalers, preventer inhalers, or combination of the two


Family history,

Medical record,

Physical examination

Clinical Presentation

Cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain or tightness


Airline hyperresponsiveness, Pronounced bronchoconstrictor reaction,

Physical modifications, Soreness,

Improper working of neuroregulation

MindMap for Acute Asthma Exacerbation


Cliniciansshould attempt to understand various dynamic as far as asthma isconcerned since it is a disease that can cause death among childrenand adults yet it can be managed and controlled through an inhaler.


Choi,I. S. (2011). Gender-specific asthma treatment. Allergy,asthma &amp immunology research,3(2),74-80.

Ference,E. H., Tan, B. K., Hulse, K. E., Chandra, R. K., Smith, S. B., Kern,R. C., … &amp Smith, S. S. (2015). Commentary on genderdifferences in prevalence, treatment, and quality of life of patientswith chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergy&amp Rhinology,6(2),e82.

Gelb,A. F., &amp Nadel, J. A. (2015). Understanding the pathophysiologyof the asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome.Journalof Allergy and Clinical Immunology,136(3),553.