Annotated Bibliography Plastic Bags and the Environment

AnnotatedBibliography: Plastic Bags and the Environment

AnnotatedBibliography: Plastic Bags and the Environment

Plasticbags are among the basic carrier sacks used in routine activities.These plastic bags are utilized in the society for packaging,wrapping, and carrying shopping from supermarkets and shopsconveniently. Nevertheless, these plastic bags are non-biodegradable,a property that has raised a lot of environmental concerns because ofthe effect they have on the environment. Environmental activists andother parties have raised concerns to minimize the utilization ofplastic bags on doing shopping. Some of the key recommendations toreduce the impact of the utilization of plastic bags include limitingthe use of plastic bags by imposing a corrective tax. Use ofincentives to promote re-use of plastic bags. Others propose thatplastic bags should be banned completely, and other reusable bags beused instead. This paper discusses the impact of plastic bags on theenvironment and the corrective measures that can be applied to reducethis effect.

Nkwachukwu,O. I., Chima, C. H., Ikenna, A. O., &amp Albert, L. (2013). Focus onpotential environmental issues on plastic world towards a sustainableplastic recycling in developing countries. International Journal ofIndustrial Chemistry, 4(1), 1-13.

Theproduction, distribution, and demand for plastics have increasedtremendously giving rise to environmental concerns over the last 20years. According to this paper, these plastics are not properlydisposed in the right places or are burned uncontrollably at homebecause of poor waste management. The paper provides statisticsconcerning the production of plastic globally over the last tenyears, distribution of world plastic production, and the demand ofplastic worldwide.

Onthe same note, the paper discusses the concept of plastic bag andsome of the environmental management concerns as a result of the useof carrier plastic bags. The paper also provides some recommendationson waste management and ways in which the government could help inthe management of plastic wastes and decreasing of the use of numberof plastic bags consumed daily. This paper is valuable for thisresearch as it also provides critical information about the impact ofplastic bags on the environment citing issues such as its effect onaquatic life, birds and even the serenity of the environment.

Ohtomo,S., &amp Ohnuma, S. (2014). Psychological interventional approachfor reducing resource consumption: Reducing plastic bag usage atsupermarkets.Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 84, 57-65.

Thisscholarly research paper investigates the cutback on plastic bagusage at superstores. According to the researchers, most of the humanbehaviors that result in probable damage to the environment are notdone intentionally. The paper is based on theoretical foundations ofdual motivation model to understand the use and disuse of plasticbags. The research is conducted in Japan where dual motivation modelto plastic bag utilization was applied. On the same note, the paperexamined the impact of an intervention that motivates behavior changethat promotes environment.

Toachieve this, the paper used voice prompt intervention. At thebeginning of the study, customers were offered free plastic bags bythe supermarket cashiers. During the intervention which happened inthe second week, the cashiers inquired from customers if they needplastic bags. The researchers used observation and questionnaires tocollect data relating to the use of free plastic bags during theintervention. The outcome of the research indicated that voiceprompts reduced the utilization of plastic bags. This is achieved asvoice prompts discourage unintentional usage and at the same timeencourage consumers to intentionally reduce the use of plastic bags.This paper provides useful information that can be used as a basis ofpinpointing behavioral change as one of the strategies that should beincorporated in the policy instruments that governments can utilizeto reduce the number of shopping bags consumed in the economy.

Kasidoni,M., Moustakas, K., &amp Malamis, D. (2015). The existing situationand challenges regarding the use of plastic carrier bags in Europe.Waste Management &amp Research, 33(5), 419-428.

Theplastic bag is one of the popular shopping carrier bags favored byboth retailers and consumers. Nonetheless, its impact on theenvironment has attracted the attention of the European Unionauthorities. This paper posits that there are quite a number ofinitiatives taken by the authority to reduce the use of plasticshopping bags. This paper looks at some of the key initiatives takenby the European Union member states to reduce the consumption ofplastic shopping bags in a bid to reduce its environmental impact.The researchers used the laws governing the use of plastic shoppingbags of each member states of the European Union as the foundation inwhich the existing situation and challenges concerning plastic bagsare analyzed.

Thepaper not only looks at the initiatives taken to reduce the number ofplastic shopping bags that goes to landfills or are left on the earthsurface but also the situation of the use of plastic bags and thechallenges faced by the government to reduce plastic shopping bags inthe economy that ends up in landfills. On the same note, the paperprovides policy evaluation and recommendations that could help memberstate in reducing the use of plastic shopping bags in the market.This paper is relevant to our research as it will provide backgroundinformation and the national laws that are used in regulating theutilization of plastic shopping bags in the economy such as the useof corrective tax, banning of plastic bags, and encouraging of otheralternatives to plastic bag as a shopping carrier.

Homonoff,T. A. (2013). Can small incentives have large effects? The impact oftaxes versus bonuses on disposable bag use. Industrial RelationsSection, Princeton University Working Paper, (575).

Accordingto the researcher, small incentives tend to have a large impact whenit comes to prosocial behavior. This paper provides theoreticalfoundations on the use of motivation to influence behavior. The paperposits that incentives could have more impact in inducing consumersto reduce the use of disposable bag use as compared to the use ofcorrective tax measures. The researcher uses neo-classical economicsto explain how tax discourages the use of disposable bags and howincentive could have a greater or almost the same impact with thetax.

Thispaper concludes that use of taxes could help in reducing the numberof plastic shopping bags consumed in the economy. However, use ofincentives to motivate consumers to use alternatives could motivatebehavior change and result in substantial reduction of the number ofplastic carrier bags consumed annually. This working paper providesuseful tips on strategies that we can integrate into our researchpaper such as the use of bonus as a motivation to encourage consumersto use alternatives that are environmentally friendly compared toplastic shopping bags.

Jakovcevic,A., Steg, L., Mazzeo, N., Caballero, R., Franco, P., Putrino, N., &ampFavara, J. (2014). Charges for plastic bags: Motivational andbehavioral effects. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 40, 372-380.

Thispaper analyses both behavioral and motivational effects that resultbecause of the use of charges for plastic bags. The study was done inBuenos Aires City in Argentina where two separate studies were doneto understand the effect of a charge for using a plastic shopping bagonce. The first study revealed that there is a greater increase inconsumers re-use of plastic bags after introducing a charge ascompared to a supermarket where the introduction of a charge was donelater in time.

Theresearcher cites the fact that introducing a charge fundamentallydiscourages single use of plastic bags as consumers will be forced topay to obtain new plastic bags in a supermarket. Therefore, it mayresult in behavioral change where consumers will always reuse plasticshopping bags for more than once.

Thepaper also analyses how the charge policy on plastic bag could be ofresult in the reduction of plastic bag use. On the same note, thepaper brings to attention some of the environmental benefits thatcould result in the introduction of a charge on plastic bags.However, some of the opponents pointed out that such charges resultin financial costs. The paper concludes that what caused behavioralchanges are the intrinsic motivations rather than extrinsicmotivations. This paper is relevant to our research as it insights tocharge policy and its impact on the environment.

Miller,R. M. (2012). Plastic shopping bags: An analysis of policyinstruments for plastic bag reduction (Doctoral dissertation,Universiteit Utrecht).

Thispaper argues that the popularity of plastic bags have increasedtremendously. According to the Miller (2012), the number of plasticshopping bags consumed annually is almost a trillion because of theirwidespread use and convenience. The paper points out that there isincreasing concern about effects that plastic bags have on theenvironment today and in the future. The researcher posits that mostgovernment worldwide are pressured to take measures that could helpreduce the consumption of plastic bags.

Thisscholarly research offers an extensive analysis of policy instrumentsthat policy makers can choose from and implement to reduceconsumption and impact of plastic bags to the society. The paperevaluates each instrument using social, economic and environmentalcriteria and is validated using the impact and expected outcomes. Thepaper categorically states that plastic bag bans are stern, increasescosts to the parties and at the same time less likely to be acceptedby the public. On the other hand, imposing a levy on plastic bagscould be costly to producers and consumers. However, it helpsfacilitate consumer choice and at the same time assist in generatingrevenue. Finally, use of voluntary actions by retailers to reduce thenumber of plastic bags consumed is cheap but weakly sanction andreduces impact only to a small degree. The paper concludes that thebest policy instrument that should be utilized is imposing of plasticbag levy and can be utilized by different economies to address theissue of plastic carrier bags.

References

Homonoff,T. A. (2013). Can small incentives have large effects? The impact oftaxes versus bonuses on disposable bag use. Industrial RelationsSection, Princeton University Working Paper, (575).

Jakovcevic,A., Steg, L., Mazzeo, N., Caballero, R., Franco, P., Putrino, N., &ampFavara, J. (2014). Charges for plastic bags: Motivational andbehavioral effects. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 40, 372-380.

Kasidoni,M., Moustakas, K., &amp Malamis, D. (2015). The existing situationand challenges regarding the use of plastic carrier bags in Europe.Waste Management &amp Research, 33(5), 419-428

Miller,R. M. (2012). Plastic shopping bags: An analysis of policyinstruments for plastic bag reduction (Doctoral dissertation,Universiteit Utrecht).

Nkwachukwu,O. I., Chima, C. H., Ikenna, A. O., &amp Albert, L. (2013). Focus onpotential environmental issues on plastic world towards a sustainableplastic recycling in developing countries. International Journal ofIndustrial Chemistry, 4(1), 1-13.

Ohtomo,S., &amp Ohnuma, S. (2014). Psychological interventional approachfor reducing resource consumption: Reducing plastic bag usage atsupermarkets.Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 84, 57-65.