Inthis part, the second chapter is based on the Puritan politicalthought. The Puritan Fathers believed that they had theresponsibility to establish a City on a Hill. This city had to beapproved by the churches and supported by the government in bothcivil and ecclesiastical aspects [ CITATION Mar11 l 1033 ].The role of thegreat reformers, especially Luther and Calvin in the development ofreligious ideologies are described. The Holy Experiment is thepolitical thought of the Quakers led by William Penn who preachedliberty except by consent. The Quakers identified themselves as theChildren of Light. The fourth chapter illustrates the defense of theAnglican Church against claims by the Puritans and insisting on thepresence of the Law of reason in every man. The fifth chapterdescribed the acceptance of the Law of God, the deity andassimilation of the natural laws concerning liberty, preservation oflife and property.
Parliamentarypower and the rights of Englishmen refer to the remarkable event ofIndependence Declaration by America and the conflict between theAmerican and the British constitutions. Seemingly, Britain hadconceptualized the Parliament as the sovereign body of government.Political advancements saw the attempt to establish differencesbetween administrative and colonial laws, and it was concluded thatthe two were inseparable. The declaration of independence is thus aproclamation of a population’s existence with the surety ofmanifesting the ability to self-govern [ CITATION AJB11 l 1033 ].
Thispart looks at the implications of the declaration of independence onthe civil happenings. Apparently, the government was reconstitutedbased on political legitimacy. The first constitution and itsprovisions are outlined, followed by the Confederation articles.Likewise, the underlying principles of human nature are stated asessential components used by law-makers. The perceptions and notionsregarding politics and government had significant influences on thedevelopments that took place. The constitution was formed as apolitical document outlining the framework of administration and theState’s operations as well as the responsibilities. Not only was ita vehicle for change but also the allocation of duties andobligations. The 1787 constitution was thus the outcome of aninnovative process towards political stability. Regarding the scienceof politics and law, the author establishes that law which stipulatesconditions that are otherwise indifferent to the State then it isagainst the real spirit of the legislation. However, if the Lawconforms to the statutes of the government, then it is binding [ CITATION Rob13 l 1033 ].
TheFederalist political thought was described by the example of a princewho establishes an environment where the citizens appreciate the needof his government. Such subjects are likely to respect and befaithful to him. People such as John Adams, John Jay, and GeorgeCabot among others advocated more of society rather than theindividualistic ideology. They also supported the rule of the elitebased on popular consent while opposing the implementation ofpolitical parties [ CITATION Law131 l 1033 ].The Political ideas of Jefferson wereaimed at the rectification of irresponsible behavior by the federaljury. This was to be achieved through rendering the judges subject toan electoral code. Jefferson pointed out that human beings do notpossess a natural right not to fulfill their social duties. On thecontrary, the value of environment as a social influence was highlyemphasized. Jeffersonian Republican Political Thought insisted on thepursuing of liberty logic. Virtue is considered the core component ofa republic. It is described as a feeling or a sensation and notnecessarily something that can be accrued through knowledge andeducation.
Beitzinger, A. J. (2011). A history of american political thought. Eugene: Wipf & Stock Publ.
Darwin, J. (2011, March 3). Britain, the Commonwealth and the End of Empire. Retrieved from British Broadcasting Corporation: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/endofempire_overview_01.shtml
Law, J. (2013). How Can We Define Federalism? Perspectives on Federalism, 88-120.
Robertson, D. B. (2013). The Original Compromise: What the Constitutional Framers Were Really Thinking. New York: Oxford University Press.
Signorelli, M. A. (2011, March 28). A City upon a Hill. Retrieved from Front Porch Republic: http://www.frontporchrepublic.com/2011/03/a-city-upon-a-hill/