Whatare the global consequences of the discovery and conquest of Americasby Europeans in the 15th and 17th century? How would you make thecase of this particular era as a both positive and negative event?
TheEuropeans colonized various global parts with motives includingstrengthening themselves. Among the most impacted characteristicsfrom the colonization are religion, culture, economy, and partialpolitics. The Europeans brought diseases unknown to the natives. Thenatives lacked immunity towards the new diseases and millions diedfrom the diseases (Reich,200).The colonizers brought guns and advanced metallic weapons thataltered the way the natives hunted for their food (Reich,236).The impacts of the gun to the natives was hard-felt as newterritories were created as the guns facilitated winning of battles.Food and territorial dominance were the center of the struggle andthe communities resisting the Europeans would face defeat under theirwelcoming counterparts as they lacked guns to use in wars. TheEuropeans used aggressive methods to convert the natives toChristianity. Reichexplains the natives already developed some deep forms of ancestralworshipping, but with the advent of the new religion of Christianity,the natives had to alter their cultural identities to align with thenew religion (364). Before the arrival of the Europeans, the nativesdwelled peacefully, and their perception was that land was not apersonal item that one could claim they owned rightfully. TheEuropeans came in, took the land and banned the natives from usingit, and that was a great dissatisfaction for the natives that theywaged war with the Europeans. The colonizers had a huge demand forthe game products in the native lands. To deliver the demand, thecolonizers cut down trees and hunted the wild game illegally asproducts such as timber and animal skins attracted a hugely profitingbusiness back at home (Reich,509).
Ifeel the interaction of the natives considered as the Old World withthe colonizers with their new ideas has splitting influences on theinhabitants. The natives gained a new religion perspective, rewardsfor the coloration and guns were available. Education was paramountfor the colonizers, and new forms of administrations came to effectin the colonized America (Tewari,164).However, the interaction of the new and the old worlds was notwithout detrimental results. The demure ruling of the colonizersmeant that the resistive tribes would be killed, others would begathered in lands that would not sustain their needs. The Europeansepidemics were devastating to the natives and others separated fromtheir ancestral lands.
Whatare three ways in which intolerance, particularly religiousintolerance impacted specific societies and people in the EarlyModern World? Which were the most affected by the circumstances ofintolerance, and why?
TheRoman Catholics were among the first to immigrate to the New World,followed closely by the colonies of Spain, Portugal, and France. Theregions where the colonizers settled were required to fit the faithof the incomers (Rivett,75).The English and Dutch colonies were diverse of their religion. Thediversity of religions from the colonizers was as a result of theProtestant Reformation in the 16th century that broke the oneness ofthe European Christianity and created various religions (Rivett,154).Hence, some of the colonizers traveled to the New World to practicetheir religion without any persecution, as it was the case in Europe.The Columbian Exchange exchanged goods, commodities, and people allaround the globe. Among their main quests was to introduceChristianity to the natives. North America and Canada were underheavy restrictions as the Columbian Exchange targeted these regionsas they were resourceful. However, in these regions, the natives hadtheir centralized forms of ancestral worship and failure to worshipthrough the new Christian ways was punished by deaths and destructionof the worship grounds. In North America, religion intolerance was ahuge conflicting factor since many Puritans from Europe settled inthese regions of the New World, and they did so purely for religiousreasons. The new religion was not entirely based o persecution onthose who failed to join.
Myreaction is that the colonizers had themselves escaped from themisery of religious persecution in Europe after the ProtestantReformation (Rivett,200).Hence, the new arrivals settled in the New World hoping to abandonthe religious mistakes of the Old World. Consequently, the citizensof the United States fought off the colonialists but still used thereligious teachings to create a government and new society whosefoundation was justice, human rights, and freedom. Moreover, theirintolerance over the ancestral worship by the natives was from theirview that the ancestral worship had resemblance to the previousreligious dominance of the Roman Catholics. The intolerance focusedmore to bringing more believers to the new religious groups as bigmasses would guarantee the survivorship of a religion.
Reich,Jerome R. "Colonial America." (2011).
Rivett,Sarah, and Stephanie L. Kirk. ReligiousTransformations in the Early Modern Americas.Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014. Internetresource.
Tewari,Nita, and Alvin N. Alvarez, eds. AsianAmerican Psychology: Current Perspectives.Psychology Press, 2012.